Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins

  • A

    Haplogroup A is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of major haplogroup N. It was likely born in East Asia around 24,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b). Through historic travels, members of this line live across East Asia and the Americas.

    People: Native Americans Places: Asia, North America, and South America


Explore your maternal heritage in the Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins.


Latest Posts

  • MyHeritage Chromosome Browser

Use the MyHeritage Chromosome Browser

MyHeritage has added a chromosome browser to their autosomal DNA matches tool set. The MyHeritage Chromosome Browser is a simple yet elegant browser that allows you to quickly see the DNA you share with each match.

Y-DNA Genealogy Tools & Resources

The following is a brief list of tools and resources to help genetic genealogy using Y-chromosome DNA. A copy of this list is also in the files section of the Y-DNA - Applied Genealogy & Paternal Origins group on Facebook.

Featured Pages

Ancestry DNA (Ancestry.com DNA)

Ancestry is a genealogy company. They also sell DNA tests for personal ethnic origins and genealogy. Their tests are based on a microarray chip.

Oseberg ship remains

The Oseberg ship is a Viking ship. It was found in a burial mound in Norway.

Ramesses III

Ramesses III was a Pharaoh of Egypt. He was the son of Setnakhte and Queen Tiy-Merenese.

Sweyn II of Denmark

Sweyn II Estridsson, King of Denmark, ruled from 1047 until his death in 1076. He was born around 1019 to Ulf Thorgilsson and Estrid Svendsdatter.

Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS)

The revised Cambridge Reference Sequence is based on the first mitochondrial genome to be tested. The first version was published in 1981.


Tutankhamun, King Tut,was an Egyptian pharaoh. He ruled about 1332 to 1323 BCE.

Project Updates

  • New England Colonist - Cuckoos Farm

New England Colonist Weekly Update – 18 Sep 2018

Now that we are past the FTDNA summer sale, I will return to weekly project updates. This weeks' are pretty exciting. Martin Hendrix has joined the project as a co-administrator. He is helping to update Y-DNA and mtDNA chart subgrouping.

  • Nordic Y-DNA - 4 July

Nordic Y-DNA Weekly News – 10 Aug 2018

Hello Everyone, The project continues to grow, and it is wonderful to see geographic discoveries begin to come forward. This weeks find was made by Harald Alvestrand. Below are the counts for each major Y-DNA [...]

  • Q-M242 - 10 July

Q-M242 Weekly Update – 10 July 2018

This week's newsletter will cover the project's most recent published paper, the Q-L804 and Q-L527 branches, and new SNP Packs being developed by Family Tree DNA for Q-L804 and Q-L527.

Analysis of male specific region of the human Y chromosome sheds light on historical events in Nazi occupied eastern Poland

The aim of this research was to test genetically the remains found in Białystok to determine their possible ethnic background, in order to shed new light on the victims and what happened in the Białystok detention centre during the Nazi occupation.

Ancient genomes from North Africa evidence prehistoric migrations to the Maghreb from both the Levant and Europe

We show that Early Neolithic Moroccans (∼5,000 BCE) are similar to Later Stone Age individuals from the same region and possess an endemic element retained in present-day Maghrebi populations

Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula

Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait.

Sephardic signature in haplogroup T mitochondrial DNA

A rare combination of mutations within mitochondrial DNA subhaplogroup T2e is identified as affiliated with Sephardic Jews, a group that has received relatively little attention.

Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia

We investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia.

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