Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins

  • A

    Haplogroup A is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of major haplogroup N. It was likely born in East Asia around 24,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b). Through historic travels, members of this line live across East Asia and the Americas.

    People: Native Americans Places: Asia, North America, and South America


Explore your maternal heritage in the Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins.


Latest Posts

  • MyHeritage Chromosome Browser

Use the MyHeritage Chromosome Browser

MyHeritage has added a chromosome browser to their autosomal DNA matches tool set. The MyHeritage Chromosome Browser is a simple yet elegant browser that allows you to quickly see the DNA you share with each match.

Y-DNA Genealogy Tools & Resources

The following is a brief list of tools and resources to help genetic genealogy using Y-chromosome DNA. A copy of this list is also in the files section of the Y-DNA - Applied Genealogy & Paternal Origins group on Facebook.

Project Updates

  • New England Colonist - Cuckoos Farm

New England Colonist Weekly Update – 18 Sep 2018

Now that we are past the FTDNA summer sale, I will return to weekly project updates. This weeks' are pretty exciting. Martin Hendrix has joined the project as a co-administrator. He is helping to update Y-DNA and mtDNA chart subgrouping.

  • Nordic Y-DNA - 4 July

Nordic Y-DNA Weekly News – 10 Aug 2018

Hello Everyone, The project continues to grow, and it is wonderful to see geographic discoveries begin to come forward. This weeks find was made by Harald Alvestrand. Below are the counts for each major Y-DNA [...]

  • Q-M242 - 10 July

Q-M242 Weekly Update – 10 July 2018

This week's newsletter will cover the project's most recent published paper, the Q-L804 and Q-L527 branches, and new SNP Packs being developed by Family Tree DNA for Q-L804 and Q-L527.

Featured Pages


23andMe is a DNA testing company. Their tests are used for both personal medical risk testing and for genetic genealogy.


Anzick-1, Anzick Boy, is a Paleo-Indian male child. His remains were found at a Clovis Culture site. He was one of two children found in 1968, at the site in south central Montana, USA. His death and remains date to between 12,707 and 12,556 years ago.

Y-DNA Company Comparison Chart – Y-SNP & Y-STR

The number of DNA testing companies is growing. Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) testing for direct paternal lineages remains the most reliable way to establish evidence of a relationship between two men in the most recent fifteen generations. This Y-DNA Company Comparison Chart covers all major companies in the industry.

X-DNA Company Comparison Chart

X-chromosome DNA (X-DNA) for genealogy is usually used alongside autosomal DNA. However, its unique inheritance pattern is key to specific types of genealogy matching.

Autosomal DNA Company Comparison Chart

Autosomal DNA is now the most used test for personal ethnic origins and recent genealogy matching. It is also the most complex method. Each of the testing companies has their own proprietary matching method.

mtDNA Company Comparison Chart

The number of DNA testing companies is growing. Mitochondral DNA (mtDNA) testing for direct maternal lineages remains the most reliable way to establish evidence of a relationship between two people who share a female ancestor in the most recent fifteen generations.

Ancient genomes from North Africa evidence prehistoric migrations to the Maghreb from both the Levant and Europe

We show that Early Neolithic Moroccans (∼5,000 BCE) are similar to Later Stone Age individuals from the same region and possess an endemic element retained in present-day Maghrebi populations

Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula

Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait.

Sephardic signature in haplogroup T mitochondrial DNA

A rare combination of mutations within mitochondrial DNA subhaplogroup T2e is identified as affiliated with Sephardic Jews, a group that has received relatively little attention.

Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia

We investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia.

Diverse origin of mitochondrial lineages in Iron Age Black Sea Scythians

We analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Scythians of the North Pontic Region (NPR) and successfully retrieved 19 whole mtDNA genomes.

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