Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins

  • H3as

    Haplogroup H3as is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who started this branch lived at some point between recent generations and 4,400 years ago (Behar et al., 2012b).

    People: Places: Ireland


Explore your maternal heritage in the Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins.


  • Dante Labs Whole Genome DNA Testing

Dante Labs & The $1000 Genome

Dante Labs is an Italian DNA testing company. They are one of the first to produce a marketable whole genome test with high enough coverage to be used by genealogists and medical researchers as a DTC product.

Latest Posts

  • mtDNA Haplogroup B2 – Geno 2.0 Author: Balanovsky, O. et al., 2011 Copyright: National Geographic

The Curious Origin of mtDNA Haplogroup B2 in the Americas

Since the publication of Paternal origin of Paleo-Indians in Siberia: insights from Y-chromosome sequences I have found myself contemplating the migration or migration of maternal lineages to the Americas. Generally, researchers have considered the timing to be deep, around 18,000 years ago.

  • MyHeritage Chromosome Browser

Use the MyHeritage Chromosome Browser

MyHeritage has added a chromosome browser to their autosomal DNA matches tool set. The MyHeritage Chromosome Browser is a simple yet elegant browser that allows you to quickly see the DNA you share with each match.

Featured Pages

Czech Republic – A Place

The Czech Republic is a country in Eastern Europe. It has a continental climate.

Cyprus – A Place

Cyprus is officially the Republic of Cyprus. It is an island nation located in the Mediterranean sea.

Cuba – A Place

Cuba is officially the Republic of Cuba. It is an island nation located of the coast of Central America.

Croatia – A Place

Croatia is officially the Republic of Croatia. It is a country located in the south-east of Europe.

Peoples, Places, and Human History

Human existence, our beginnings, trace back to Africa. For over a million years, we have traveled within and away from our homeland. Those travels have built upon one another and created our modern cultures.

Samoa – A Place

Samoa is an island nation in the central region of the South Pacific Ocean. The two main islands are Savai’i and Upolu.

Project Updates

Disallowing Proxy and VPN Traffic

I regret having to write that I am no longer allowing PROXY and VPN traffic to the Haplogroup website. Over the past two years the amount of automated 'bot' traffic to the site has placed a sever strain on my resources. I do not think this will impact most of my project members. If it does though, please send me the information for the PROXY or VPN you use. I will gladly add you to the whitelist.

  • Laura's Lost Pet Services

Laura's #GivingTuesday Fundraiser for Laura's Lost Pet Services, Inc.

Giving Tuesday has come to follow Black Friday and Cyber Monday. It is a chance to return to our Thankful celebration of what we have by helping others. This year, I am helping my friend Laura Weitner. Laura is raising funds for her non-profit lost pet finding service. Laura has her own pets, a job, and family. Every day though she helps people in her community find their lost animals. She does this out of kindness and love of animals. She also helps capture and rehabilitate the homeless 'neighborhood dogs' of West Virginia. This work often involves long nights waiting for a dog to enter a humane trap and potential bites.

  • Maronite Y-DNA Q-M242

Q-M242s in Zalloua et al., 2008

In Zalloua at al., 2008, Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events, the authors tested the Y-DNA of Druze, Muslims, and Christians in Lebanon.

Ancient Fennoscandian genomes reveal origin and spread of Siberian ancestry in Europe

Here we analyse ancient genomic data from 11 individuals from Finland and north-western Russia.

The genetic prehistory of the Andean highlands 7000 years BP though European contact

Here, we present a time series of ancient whole genomes from the Andes of Peru, dating back to 7000 calendar years before the present (BP), and compare them to 42 new genome-wide genetic variation datasets from both highland and lowland populations.

Early human dispersals within the Americas

We sequenced 15 ancient human genomes spanning Alaska to Patagonia; six are ≥10,000 years old (up to ~18× coverage).

Reconstructing the Deep Population History of Central and South America

We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 49 individuals forming four parallel time transects in Belize, Brazil, the Central Andes, and the Southern Cone, each dating to at least ∼9,000 years ago.

Mobility and trade in Mediterranean antiquity: Evidence for an ‘Italian connection’ in Mycenaean Greece revealed by ancient DNA of livestock

We sequenced pig and cattle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Tiryns, Greece – a key Bronze Age site in the Aegean region.

A test of the European Pleistocene refugial paradigm, using a Western Palaearctic endemic bird species

Although our results support the paradigm, in general, they also suggest that in highly dispersive taxa, isolation of neighbouring refugia was incomplete, resulting in large super-refugial populations.