Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins

  • A2a2

    Haplogroup A2a2 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who started this branch lived at some point between recent generations and 7,600 years ago (Behar et al. 2012b).

    People: Chukotkan Inuit and Eskimo Places: North America and Northeast Siberia


Explore your maternal heritage in the Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins.


Genetic Genealogy News

The Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins – GenBank data

I am building the table for mtDNA sequences from GenBank. GenBank sequences are the main source for defining branches on the maternal tree. Therefore, they help us understand not only the origins of a branch but the current structure of the tree -- what we know and its limits.

The Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins – Geno 2 Samples & Maternal Origin

This is a project that will create mtDNA pages for all named subclades. One part of each page will hold a table of results from National Geographic's Genographic Project's Geno 2 results. The combination of accademic sample collection and public participation, the Genographic database is one of the largest sources of mtDNA result with maternal ancestry information.

  • Forest by Pixels

The Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins – Phylotree History Log

I have been working on the part that shows the current and historic definitions of a branch under Phylotree. From the first post, we have a user story --What the user wants. As a user with mtDNA results, I would like to know how the named branch is defined in the current Phylotree build and has been in past ones.

  • Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins - mtDNA Website 1

The Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins – Background and Summary Information

Continuing from my first post on the Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins... After learning the basics of using the Pods framework to create custom post types, custom fields, and templates to present them on webpages, I decided to create an mtDNA stories custom post type. For those who don't know Wordpress, post types are different types of web pages. All pages of the same type share a common set of fields and features. Creating a type lets one add additional parts that only make sense for some pages.

Recent Journal Articles

Six complete mitochondrial genomes from Early Bronze Age humans in the North Caucasus

The North Caucasus region is rich in early Bronze Age sites, with burials yielding many artifacts, including those from the Chekon, Natukhaevskaya, Katusvina-Krivitsa kurgan groups (at Krasnodar Krai, Russia) and Klady kurgan (near Novosvobodnaya Village, Republic of Adygea, Russia).

Postglacial viability and colonization in North America’s ice-free corridor

Our findings reveal that the first Americans, whether Clovis or earlier groups in unglaciated North America before 12.6 cal. kyr BP, are unlikely to have travelled by this route into the Americas. However, later groups may have used this north–south passageway.

Population history in third-millennium-BC Europe: assessing the contribution of genetics

Several recent high-profile aDNA studies have claimed to have identified major migrations during the third millennium BC in Europe. This contribution offers a brief review of these studies, and especially their role in understanding the genetic make-up of modern European populations.

Uniparental ancestry markers in Chilean populations

The presence of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans has led to the development of a multi-ethnic, admixed population in Chile. This study aimed to contribute to the characterization of the uniparental genetic structure of three Chilean regions.

Latest Posts

  • 23andMe Extract file 1

Extracting 23andMe Files

23andMe raw data files are downloaded in the ZIP format. This is how you extract them for use by some 3rd party sites like James Lick's mtDNA page.

  • 23andMe mtDNA Results download 1

Download 23andMe Results

Many 3rd party utilities need you to download your results from 23andMe to use them.

  • View_of_Aguadilla_(Puerto_Rico) WIKI

Ruth Gonzalez

Ruth Gonzalez is the involved with the Voices in Time and mtDNA haplogroup C projects. She is a retired teacher and a genealogist. She lives with her husband and her Morkie. View of Aguadilla, [...]

  • Lynne Taylor Montanari

Lynne Taylor Montanari

Lynne Taylor Montanari is a genealogist and mother. She uses DNA to research her own genealogy and help others find family. Lynne Taylor Montanari Question: Please tell me about yourself. What do you [...]

  • Howard Wolinsky

Howard Wolinsky

Howard Wolinsky is a science writer, genealogist, and one of the earliest adopters in the genetic genealogy community. He is an mtDNA HV1b2 and a Y-DNA G2. When he is not authoring books and breaking [...]

  • Carol Vass-2013

Carol Vass

Carol Vass is a genealogist and project administrator. Outside of genealogy, she is a mother and worked in personnel and art advocacy. Carol and her husband Sam were two of my first friends in the [...]