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Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins

  • U2e2

    Haplogroup U2e2 is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity. It is about 13 thousand years old (Behar et al., 2012b).

    People: Places: France, India, and Iran


Explore your maternal heritage in the Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins.


Genetic Genealogy News

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Family Tree DNA's DNA Day Sale 2017! (April 20 – 27)

Connect with relatives at sale prices during Family Tree DNA's DNA Day Sale.

Student Citizen-Science: Connecting the Jewish Future to Its Past

The Y-DNA Q-M242 Project will be partnering with Avotaynu in 2017 on several research initiatives to expand our knowledge of Jewish Heritage, Genealogy, and the branches of Haplogroup Q found in Jewish Diaspora populations.

Holiday Sale at Family Tree DNA

Family Tree DNA has announced their Holiday Sale. The message is clear. Every Monday customers will get coupons. If you like your coupon, use it. If you don't, get someone else to use it, and [...]

Exploring Microarray Chips

I am starting my first big adventure for the Genetic Genealogy Compendium. Four major genetic genealogy test sellers use microarray chips (Genotyping BeadChips) for products: Ancestry.com, 23andMe, Family Tree DNA, and the National Geographic Genographic Project.

Recent Journal Articles

Late Danubian mitochondrial genomes shed light into the Neolithisation of Central Europe in the 5th millennium BC

Here we address this issue by presenting 5 complete mitochondrial genomes of various late Danubian individuals from modern-day Poland and combining it with available published data. Our data show that Late Danubian cultures are maternally closely related to Funnel Beaker groups instead of culturally similar LBK.

A study of the Bodrogköz population in north-eastern Hungary by Y chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups

We have determined the distribution of Y chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups in population samples from one of the most important areas in north-eastern Hungary from many villages in the Bodrogköz.

Forensic genetic analyses in isolated populations with examples of central European Valachs and Roma

In this review article we present several examples of how analyzing samples from isolated populations can bias the results of the forensic statistics and analyses. We select our examples from isolated populations from central and southeastern Europe, namely the Valachs and the European Roma.

Paternity testing under the cloak of recreational genetics

Direct-to-consumer (DTC) internet companies are selling widely advertised and highly popular genetic ancestry tests to the broad public. These tests are often classified as falling within the scope of so-called ‘recreational genetics’, but…

Latest Posts

Q-L940 {Group 2.1} BIG Y

The Group 2.1 cluster within Q-L940 is primarily made up of ethnic Armenians. The history of Armenia and its connections to historic and prehistoric populations in both Anatolia and the

Q-L940 {Group 4} BIG Y

Q-L940 Group 4 is an Iberian branch that has links to the Romani people in Portugal. The Q-M242 project is funding the BIG Y of a member of the Domingues de Reyes family (kit 166847). This will help us...

BIG Y Testing a Scott Surname Male Q-YP1462

The project has the opportunity to test an Native Americas male with the SCOTT surname. His Y-STR markers make him a distant match to the FREEMAN group on the Q-YP1462 branch of Q-M3. This links him to other Algonquian lineages.

A Q-Z780 (Q-CTS1780) BIG Y

Thanks to contributions to the project, we will be BIG Y testing a project member (Cardoza kit 29068) who is L66+. This will help us discover Y-SNP markers that reliably define this match. It will also allow us to find how recently the line is connected to the Anzick child.