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Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins

  • A2

    Haplogroup A2 is an Native Americas branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 13,900 and 17,400 years ago (Behar et al 2012b).

    People: Places: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, North America, Peru, Puerto Rico, South America, Uruguay, and Venezuela


Explore your maternal heritage in the Encyclopedia of mtDNA Origins.


Genetic Genealogy News

  • Genetic Screening - Coursera

Coursera: To Screen or not to Screen? Methods and health policies through case studies

Coursera has relaunched their seven week class on screening for physical and mental health. The next session starts November 20, so get ready to sign up and learn. Like most Coursera classes, this one is free to audit.

Rockstar Genealogist Nominations are Open

It is time again to blast off with the annual 'Rockstar' genealogist competition on the Canada's Anglo-Celtic blog. Nominations are fortunately open still, so we have time to look at genetic genealogists who should be [...]

FTDNA Announces BIG Y Updates

This morning, Family Tree DNA announced to project administrators some of the first major updates to their BIG Y product since its launch.

  • DNA Survey - Triangulation 2

DNA Survey – DNA Triangulation

When I closed the survey, 101 people (n=101) had taken it. The first question was, "Do you use DNA Triangulation with your matches?" 63.4% answered Yes, and 36.6% answered No.

Recent Journal Articles

Genetic diversity and phylogenetic study of the Chinese Gelao ethnic minority via 23 Y-STR loci

Haplotype diversity for 23 Y chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci included in the PowerPlex® Y23 System was analyzed in the Chinese Gelao minority group of 234 unrelated males living in Daozhen Gelao-Miao Autonomous County in Guizhou Province, southwest China.

The Neolithic Transition in the Baltic Was Not Driven by Admixture with Early European Farmers

To broaden our understanding of the Neolithic transition across Europe, we analyzed eight ancient genomes: six samples (four to ∼1- to 4-fold coverage) from a 3,500 year temporal transect (∼8,300–4,800 calibrated years before present) through the Baltic region dating from the Mesolithic to the Late Neolithic and two samples spanning the Mesolithic-Neolithic boundary from the Dnieper Rapids region of Ukraine.

Genetic Discontinuity between the Maritime Archaic and Beothuk Populations in Newfoundland, Canada

Situated at the furthest northeastern edge of Canada, the island of Newfoundland (approximately 110,000 km2) and Labrador (approximately 295,000 km2) today constitute a province characterized by abundant natural resources but low population density.

A Comparative Analysis of Chinese Historical Sources and Y-DNA Studies with Regard to the Early and Medieval Turkic Peoples

In the past 10 years, geneticists have investigated the genetic variation of modern Turkic populations as well as ancient DNA of the Xiongnu and others. The accumulated findings of these surveys, however, have not been adequately noted by specialists in Inner Asian history.

Latest Posts

Q-M242 Project Updates – 14 November 2017

We have reached November, and there is much news from the Q-M242 project. This will be the first post of many over the next six weeks. The project currently has...

  • Q-L527 Locations Map


Q-L527 is a Northwestern European branch of the Q-F1161 lineage. According to YFull analysis, it is between 15,200 and 18,800 years old.

  • Portugal - Pexels


Q-BZ1458 is a branch of the Q-L936 lineage. Its age has not been calculated.

  • Italy Map - Pixabay


Q-BZ3920 is a branch of the Q-BZ3897 lineage. Its age has not been calculated.