Updating the Q-F1096 Tree & And the Unexpected Connection to the Americas

Q-F1096 has branches that reach across Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. It is also found in the Americas, which is something of a surprise. Alessandro, Vladimir, and I have worked on tree updates. Below is the first draft of the new tree with the methods I outlined before and background on the Native Americas branches of Q-F1096 discovered in the past few years.

Rasmussen et al., 2010 – A Paleo-Eskimo in Greenland

In 2010, the draft genome of a Paleo-Eskimo from Greenland was published. The authors sequenced hair found in permafrost. They calculated it to be 4,000 years old and suggested that it came from a Paleo-Eskimo linked to a late migration to the new world around 5,500 years ago. The sequence was re-evaluated by YFull. It belongs to Q-NGQ10 (aka Q-YP1500). This is one of the two branches under Q-F746.

Dulik et al., 2012 – The Northwest Territories

In 2012, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania sequenced members of the Gwich’in, Inuvialuit, and Tłįchǫ Native peoples in the Northwest territory of Canada. They found a marker, NWT01, that marked a separate lineage from other Y-DNA Qs in the Americas. Thanks to the National Geographic Genographic project’s Geno 2.0 test and BIG Y results, we know that NWT01 is an equivalent Y-SNP on the Q-F746 branch.

In consideration of the Q-NGQ10 branch, it would be interesting to know if any of these samples are NGQ10+. If so, then the Paleo-Eskimo of Greenland is far from extinct. If not, they mark a third and fourth line of Q in the Americas.

Raghavan et al., 2014 – An Ancient Asian Genome

In 2014, a team of scientists sequenced the Afontova Gora 2 genome. Based on the Y-DNA Tree at the time, they found the sample, AF2, to be a member of haplogroup Q. Based on the current tree and reanalysis by YFull, the sample is Q-F746.

Gurianov et al., 2015 – Revisiting the Northwest Territories

In 2015, Vladimir Gurianov presented his findings at a conference showing the connections between the findings above and four samples from the Koryak village of Evensk in Northeastern Siberia.

The Peruvian Q-M120

One of the 1K Genomes samples, HG01944, from Peruvians in Lima, Peru belongs to Q-M120. Q-M120 is the other branch under Q-F746. It is best known as an East Asian branch of Q. This is intriguing, if it is not post colonial admixture, it will mark a fourth or fifth Q lineage in the Americas.

The Initial Draft of the New Q-F1096 Tree

Thank you for being part of the project.

Best Regards,
R.A. Canada and the Q-M242 Team


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