To investigate the evolutionary and demographic history of the Gaucho, a distinct population of southern Brazil, relating it to their culture, to assess possible parallel continuity. METHODS: Six binary polymorphisms, an Alu insertion polymorphism (YAP) and 12 short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome, as well as the sequence of the first hypervariable segment (HVS-I) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region were studied in 150 unrelated males born in the Pampa region of Rio Grande do Sul. RESULTS: Comparison of the results with the other Brazilian and Uruguayan populations, as well as with their putative ancestors, indicated a stronger male Spanish influence than that observed elsewhere in Brazil, a former Portuguese colony. Extensive mtDNA analyses of their Amerindian component gave clear indications of the presence there of material from extinct (Charrua), as well as extant (Guarani) tribes. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic analyses contributed in a significant way to reveal that the known cultural continuity between pre- and post-Columbian Pampa populations was also accompanied by an extraordinary genetic continuity.
- Marrero, Andrea R.; Bravi, Claudio; Stuart, Steven; Long, Jeffrey C.; Pereira das Neves Leite, Fá bio; Kommers, Trí cia; Carvalho, Claudia M. B.; Pena, Sergio D.; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Salzano, Francisco M.; Cá & tira Bortolini, Maria (2007). Pre- and Post-Columbian Gene and Cultural Continuity: The Case of the Gaucho from Southern Brazil. Human Heredity, 64(3), 160-171.
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