This is Rebekah Canada from the Y-DNA Haplogroup Q-M242 Project. This week’s newsletter will cover the project’s most recent published paper, the Q-L804 and Q-L527 branches, and new SNP Packs being developed by Family Tree DNA for Q-L804 and Q-L527.
The project’s most recent research collaboration is published. We are most grateful to those who donated their test results, Michael Sager and Brent Manning in the FTDNA lab, our colleges in China, and the reviewers and publishers for the European Journal of Human Genetics.
Paternal origin of Paleo-Indians in Siberia: insights from Y-chromosome sequences
Abstract: The expansion of modern humans to the American continent after the Last Glacial Maximum led the way to the present-day distribution of American aborigines. Recent advances in autosomal DNA research and expanded testing of mtDNA lineages has provided a clearer picture of the number and timing of founding lineages. However, both autosomal DNA and mtDNA research have provided unresolved competing theories between the short-term and the long-term models of the Beringian standstill hypothesis. Further, the source of founding paternal lineages of American aborigines and their relationship with ancient Siberia populations remains ambiguous. In this study, we reanalyzed a 7.0 Mbp region of 132 paternal Y-chromosome sequences, including 39 newly reported ones, of male samples from American aborigines and Eurasian populations. Among Eurasian samples, we identified Y-chromosome branches that are most closely related to known American aborigine founding lineages, that is, Q1-L804 links to Q1-M3, Q1-L330 links to Q1-Z780, Q1-M120 links to Q1-B143, and C2-F1756 links to C2-P39. The revised phylogenetic tree and age estimates indicate a narrow timeframe (~15.3–14.3 kya) for the upper time limit of human entry to the American continent. Our analysis suggests that the in situ differentiation of Q-M242 in Central Eurasia and South Siberia region gave rise to numerous sub-lineages older than 15.3 kya, and the founding of Paleo-Indian paternal lineages is part of the great Q1-L53 diffusion throughout the Eurasia after the Last Glacial Maximum. The results of our study will assist in future studies of the history of modern populations in Eurasia and the Americas.
Journal Website: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41431-018-0211-6
Q-L527 and Q-L804 Overview
Q-L527 and Q-L804 are two Northwestern European branches of Q. A brother branch to the major Native American founding Q-M3 lineage, Q-L804’s presence in Europe is fascinating. On the other hand, the perhaps older Q-L527 ties into the Q-L940 branch that links it broadly to Southwestern Asia and the Middle East. Many people guess that if someone is a European Q then they must be either one or the other of these branches. This is not the case.
It is most rare to find either of these branches outside of Norway, Sweden, and the British Isles. If you are a German Q, you are likely a much different branch. To make things even more complicated, though both have their highest frequencies in the West of Sweden, their oldest and most divers branches may be from England in the British Isles.
It is exploring the distribution of the branches under Q-L527 and Q-L804 that has inspired the creation of mini-SNP Packs for each.
New SNP Packs
As a reminder, a SNP Pack is a preset group of Y-DNA SNPs that are ordered and tested together. This eliminates guess-work in testing and greatly reduces the price per Y-SNP tested. The Q-L527 and Q-L804 branches have enjoyed extensive Big Y testing, but broader testing of men from diverse geographic origins is needed to help expand what is known of the lineages under these two branches. Thus, in April, I decided that the project was ready to work on two new SNP Packs. I contacted Michael Sager at Family Tree DNA, and we agreed on two small low-cost SNP Packs.
Me: What do you think of doing single well panels (<40 SNPs) for Q-L804 and Q-L527? Those are the branches most common to the Swedes and the English. (April 19)
Michael Sager: This is probably something we could entertain. We can look at a SNP list and go from there. (April 23)
Me: Would you be willing to double-check those two branches (they are small) for completeness on the tree? I think we are completely current, but I would feel better if you looked at it. (April 23)
Michael Sager: I believe both branches are now fully up to date with the in-house data we have.
Me: Thanks. For Q-L804, we would have these, plus maybe 10 more that you think would be useful for redundancy? I grabbed primary SNPs, but feel free to go with any SNP on a branch that would work better on the panel. (April 23)
I would say that Q-L804 is 2 to 3% of Norway and Sweden and is lower frequency in Iceland, Finland, and the British Isles.
Me: Correction. Not found in Finland yet, that is Q-L527. (April 23)
Me: Q-L527 is a little tighter, but I think we can still do it. I grabbed primary SNPs, but feel free to go with any SNP on a branch that would work better on the panel.
I would say that Q-L527 is also 2 to 3% of Norway and Sweden. It is found in Finland and the British Isles. I suspect it would be found more in some part of Western Central Asia if we got customers from the right place. (April 23)
Michael Sager: Ok – I will have something for you relatively soon I start with the current SNP lists and see if any need to go. (April 25)
Michael Sager: Just a note on this, we have ordered this panel. We expect it to arrive this week or late next week. At which point we’ll get validations going shortly there after. (June 13)
Michael Sager: For the most part these panels came back with pretty nice data. … (July 6)
Me: Sounds good. (July 6)
Here is what the panels will test. They are not perfect, but I think they came out really well. They will be available to order in the next two weeks. I will email those who I believe will most benefit from them.
Jewish Q News
Last week’s newsletter for Jewish Q included an overview of Q-Y2232.
Rebekah A. Canada
Volunteer Administrator, Family Tree DNA