Genetic and archaeological data indicate that the initial Paleoindian settlers of South America followed two entry routes separated by the Andes and the Amazon rainforest.
How strong was the bottleneck associated to the peopling of the Americas? New insights from multilocus sequence data
In spite of many genetic studies that contributed for a deep knowledge about the peopling of the Americas, no consensus has emerged about important parameters such as the effective size of the Native Americans founder population.
South America’s demographic complexity has been historically influenced by population interactions such as the European migration and African slavery trade, besides Native Americans groups previously settled in the territory.
Genetic studies of the peopling of the Americas: What insights do diachronic mitochondrial genome datasets provide?
Here we briefly review the evidence for current hypotheses on the peopling process of the Americas and discuss how ancient mitochondrial DNA can provide a unique temporal perspective.
Antiquity of mtDNA lineage D1g from the southern cone of South America supports pre-Clovis migration
The discovery of the Monte Verde site was revolutionary; it led to wide acceptance of the pre-Clovis hypothesis and its corollary, the coastal migration route. Although numerous additional pre-Clovis sites have been reported in South America, debate continues about the timing of the earliest human migration. Perhaps because of the paucity of very early sites in North America, researchers there are increasingly focused on the genomic evidence.
To identify new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and increase the phylogenetic resolution of the major haplogroup Q found in the Americas, we have performed a search for new polymorphisms based on sequencing divergent Y chromosomes identified by microsatellite haplotype analysis.
Here we present genetic variation from deeply sequenced genomes of 642 individuals from North and South American, Caribbean and West African populations, substantially increasing the lexicon of human genomic variation and suggesting much variation remains to be discovered in African-admixed populations in the Americas.
Our findings reveal that the first Americans, whether Clovis or earlier groups in unglaciated North America before 12.6 cal. kyr BP, are unlikely to have travelled by this route into the Americas. However, later groups may have used this north–south passageway.
Only a few genetic studies have been carried out to date in Bolivia. However, some of the most important (pre)historical enclaves of South America were located in these territories. Thus, the (sub)-Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America.
In this study, for the first time, we attempt to alleviate this lacuna of knowledge by comprehensively investigating the Y chromosome composition of contemporary Mayan populations throughout their domain.