East Eurasian ancestry in the middle of Europe: genetic footprints of Steppe nomads in the genomes of Belarusian Lipka Tatars

Medieval era encounters of nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe and largely sedentary East Europeans had a variety of demographic and cultural consequences. Amongst these outcomes was the emergence of the Lipka Tatars—a Slavic-speaking Sunni-Muslim minority residing in modern Belarus, Lithuania and Poland, whose ancestors arrived in these territories via several migration waves, mainly from the Golden Horde.

Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Polish Roma

Mitochondrial DNA variability in the Polish Roma population has been studied by means of hypervariable segment I and II (HVS I and II) sequencing and restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis of the mtDNA coding region.

A8a1

Haplogroup A8a1 is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity.

H1ap1

Haplogroup H1ap1 is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity.

R1a1a

Haplogroup R1a1a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 1,700 and 6,200 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

R1a1a2

Haplogroup R1a1a2 is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity.

K1c1f

Haplogroup K1c1f is a European branch on the maternal tree of humanity.