Haplogroup A2a2 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who started this branch lived at some point between recent generations and 7,600 years ago (Behar et al., 2012b).


Haplogroup A2a5 is a Native Americas branch on the maternal tree of humanity. This young branch of the tree was born between 250 and 1,750 years ago to a woman who lived among the Athabaskan language speakers in what is now Canada. (Achilli et al., 2013)


Haplogroup B2 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 14,200 and 19,400 years (Behar et al., 2012b).


Haplogroup A is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of major haplogroup N. It was likely born in East Asia around 24,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b). Through historic travels, members of this line live across East Asia and the Americas.

A 1225-Kilobase Deletion of the P Gene Underlies the High Prevalence of Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 in the Navajo Population

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. There are four known types of OCA: OCA1–OCA4. The clinical manifestations of all types of OCA include skin and hair hypopigmentation and visual impairment. Although there are a few documented observations of high frequency of albinism among Native Americans, including the Hopi, Zuni, Kuna, Jemez, Laguna, San Juan, and Navajo, no causative molecular defect has been previously reported. In the present study, we show that albinism in one Native American population, the Navajo, is caused by a LINE-mediated 122.5-kilobase deletion of the P gene, thus demonstrating that albinism in this population is OCA2.