Haplogroup A1a is a Eurasian branch on the maternal tree of humanity. It is between 3,700 and 10,800 years old (Behar et al 2012b).
Haplogroup R1a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 5,700 and 10,900 years (Behar et al., 2012b).
Haplogroup U2e2 is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity. It is about 13 thousand years old (Behar et al., 2012b).
Haplogroup J1c5c is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 1,500 and 8,900 years (Behar et al., 2012b). Its exact origin is not yet clear but is likely in the Middle East.
Previous genetic, anthropological and linguistic studies have shown that Roma (Gypsies) constitute a founder population dispersed throughout Europe whose origins might be traced to the Indian subcontinent. Linguistic and anthropological evidence point to Indo-Aryan ethnic groups from North-western India as the ancestral parental population of Roma. Recently, a strong genetic hint supporting this theory came from a study of a private mutation causing primary congenital glaucoma. In the present study, complete mitochondrial control sequences of Iberian Roma and previously published maternal lineages of other European Roma were analyzed in order to establish the genetic affinities among Roma groups, determine the degree of admixture with neighbouring populations, infer the migration routes followed since the first arrival to Europe, and survey the origin of Roma within the Indian subcontinent.
Y chromosome STR allelic and haplotype diversity in five ethnic Tamil populations from Tamil Nadu, India
We have analyzed 17 Y chromosomal STR loci in a population sample of 154 unrelated male individuals of the Tamil ethnic group residing in the state of Tamil Nadu, Southern India using AmpFlSTR® Yfiler PCR amplification kit. The population samples consist of the following castes: Kongu Gounder (KOG), Nadar Hindu (NAH), Agamudayar (AGA), Parayar (PAR) and other Tamil individuals (MCT) of mixed cast
We report a comprehensive statistical analysis of data on 58 DNA markers (mitochondrial [mt], Y-chromosomal, and autosomal) and sequence data of the mtHVS1 from a large number of ethnically diverse populations of India. Our results provide genomic evidence that (1) there is an underlying unity of female lineages in India...