Here we report the complete mtDNA of an archaic femur from the Hohlenstein–Stadel (HST) cave in southwestern Germany. HST carries the deepest divergent mtDNA lineage that splits from other Neanderthals ∼270,000 years ago, providing a lower boundary for the time of the putative mtDNA introgression event.
The early medieval cemetery of Dirmstein, located in the Upper Rhine Valley, is one of the rare sites bearing archeological evidence of simultaneous use by an indigenous community and newcomers from outside the Merovingian core area, and it offers the opportunity to investigate residential mobility at the former Roman Rhine frontier during the Merovingian period.
Haplogroup A1a is a Eurasian branch on the maternal tree of humanity. It is between 3,700 and 10,800 years old (Behar et al 2012b).
Haplogroup H10a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 3,700 and 8,400 years (Behar et al., 2012b).
Haplogroup R1a1a2 is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity.
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