A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture

Here, we present a study of 456 geographically diverse high-coverage Y chromosome sequences, including 299 newly reported samples. Applying ancient DNA calibration, we date the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) in Africa at 254 (95% CI 192–307) kya and detect a cluster of major non-African founder haplogroups in a narrow time interval at 47–52 kya…

Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Polish Roma

Mitochondrial DNA variability in the Polish Roma population has been studied by means of hypervariable segment I and II (HVS I and II) sequencing and restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis of the mtDNA coding region.

Ancient DNA and human history

We review studies of genomic data obtained by sequencing hominin fossils with particular emphasis on the unique information that ancient DNA (aDNA) can provide about the demographic history of humans and our closest relatives. We concentrate on nuclear genomic sequences that have been published in the past few years….


Haplogroup H1n1a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 2,100 and 7,100 years (Behar et al., 2012b).


Haplogroup R1a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 5,700 and 10,900 years (Behar et al., 2012b).