Ireland - A Place

Ireland – A Place

Summary

  • Politics
    • Name: Ireland
    • Capital: Dublin
    • 2 Letter Code: IE
    • 3 Letter Code: IRL
  • Land
    • Contenent: Europe
    • Region: Northern Europe
    • Total Land: 70,273 (27,133)
    • Land: 68,883 (26,596)
    • Water: 1,390 (540)
  • People
    • Population: 4,062,235
    • Birth Rate: 14.45 per 1,000
    • Death Rate: 7.82 per 1,000
    • Infant Mortality: 5.39 per 1,000
    • Literacy: 99.00%
  • Economy
    • Agriculture: 5%%
    • Industry: 46%%
    • Service: 49%%

Ireland is also known as the Republic of Ireland. It is an island nation in Northwestern Europe. It lies to the west of Great Britain.

The Republic of Ireland occupies five-sixths of the island of Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean. On the western coast are tall sea cliffs. They place the land high above the sea. At the top, most of the island is flat with rolling interior plain. The plain is surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains. The island has a temperate maritime climate. It is influenced by the North Atlantic Current. There are mild winters and cool summers. It is consistently humid. The skies are overcast about half the time.

Prehistory

The first people we are sure lived in Ireland were hunter-gathers. The first artifacts from them date to 7900 BCE. From then until about 4000 BCE these were the only people there. Slowly, the farming revolution reached Ireland. We call this the Neolithic revolution. With it came pottery, polished stone tools, rectangular wooden houses, megalithic tombs, and domesticated sheep and cattle. Farming helped the population of Ireland grow. By the end of the Neolithic period, new building forms were emerging.

The Neolithic in Ireland was followed by the Bronze age. This started around 2000 BCE in Ireland. Here, the Bronze age was marked by use of gold and bronze. They were used for ornaments, weapons, and tools.

By 600 BCE, the Bronze age in Ireland transformed to the Iron age. The Iron age saw the first Celtic-speaking people reach Ireland. They came between 600 and 150 BCE.

The Roman empire never conquered Ireland as they did what is now England. We know from them though something of these early Iron age people. Though there are oral traditions, these are the earliest written accounts .

History

In the 8th century (900 CE) Norsemen from the northern lands of Europe began to raid and settle Ireland. These invasions ended two hundred years later. They were stopped when King Brian Boru defeated the Danes. This happened in 1014.

Ireland had a period of relative peace. This was broken by the invasions of Normans from France in the 12th century. Thus began over seven hundred years of struggle between the Irish and the invaders. For the Normans were in time replaced by the English as foes.

The ongoing struggle was marked by uprisings and repressions.

Meanwhile, the introduction of the potato from the Americas as a crop helped cause a population boom. This boom was harshly cut in the mid-19th century. A blight attacked the potato crops year after year. There was little to eat. Many people starved to death. Between death and emigration, the population of Ireland shrank by over 25%.

This is the history that has shaped the Republic of Ireland.

Modern Times

The population of modern Ireland is now over five million. There are two official languages in Ireland. They are English and Irish (Gaelic or Gaeilge). 

The majority of the population 82.2% is native born Irish. Another 0.7% are Irish travelers 0.7%. There are also people from other European countries (9.5%).  Other ethnic groups include Asians (2.1%) and Africans (1.4%).

The historic Roman Catholic church continues to dominate religion. Roman Catholics are 78.3% of the population. Other Christian denominations include the Church of Ireland (2.7%) and the Orthodox church (1.3%). There is a small Muslim (1.3%) population.

Genetics

The genetics of Ireland has been influenced by each successive wave of migration. To some degree, it is expected to show the traces of first farmers, Bronze Age Celtic migrants, Norse invaders, Norman conquer, and English and Scottish overlords. Yet, as an island population endogamy and its way of shaping local genetics is also expected. That is, in most generations the average person married someone from their own small village or market town.

mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA follows direct maternal lines. In telling the story of a people, its strength lies in tracing this single line. There are thirteen major maternal lineages in Ireland. They are H (42.5%), HV (1.5%), I (3.0%), J (10.0%), K (10.4%), M (0.1%), N (0.1%), T (9.1%), U (15.0%), V (4.6%), W (2.1%), X (1.3%), and Y (0.1%). [wpdatachart id=1]

Literature and Data Review

Genographic Data

mtDNA

Genographic ProjectGeno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.

Hg IDHg Build 16Birth CountryMother's Birth CountryMaternal Grandmother's Birth Country
Hap10053274J1c2b5United StatesUnited StatesIreland
Hap10053892J1c3IrelandIrelandIreland
Hap10053893J1c3IrelandIrelandIreland
Hap10053894J1c3United KingdomIrelandIreland
Hap10053895J1c3United StatesUnited StatesIreland
Hap10054326J1c3bAustraliaAustraliaIreland
Hap10054327J1c3bCanadaCanadaIreland
Hap10054328J1c3bUnspecifiedUnited KingdomIreland
Hap10054329J1c3bUnited StatesUnited StatesIreland
Hap10054376J1c3bIrelandIrelandUnspecified
Hap10054546J1c3b1aIrelandIrelandIreland
Hap10054835J1c3e1IrelandIrelandIreland
Hap10054878J1c3e2United StatesUnited StatesIreland
Hap10054929J1c3fUnited StatesUnited StatesIreland
Hap10054930J1c3fUnited StatesUnited StatesIreland
Hap10054973J1c3fUnited StatesIrelandUnspecified
Hap10055065J1c3gBhutanIrelandIreland
Hap10055066J1c3gUnited StatesUnited StatesIreland
Hap10055067J1c3gUnited StatesUnited StatesIreland
Hap10055068J1c3gUnited StatesUnited StatesIreland
Hap10055557J1c5AustraliaAustraliaIreland
Hap10055558J1c5IrelandIrelandIreland
Hap10055559J1c5IrelandIrelandIreland
Hap10055560J1c5United StatesUnited StatesIreland
Hap10055876J1c5a1IrelandIrelandIreland
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Sources and Resources

Background

Journal Articles

  • Rosser, Z.; Zerjal, T.; Hurles, M.; Adojaan, M.; Alavantic, D.; Amorim, A.; Amos, W.; Armenteros, M.; Arroyo, E. & Barbujani, G. (2000). Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language. American journal of human genetics, 67(6), 1526-1543.
  • Capelli, C., Redhead, N., Abernethy, J.K., Gratrix, F., Wilson, J.F., Moen, T., Hervig, T., Richards, M., Stumpf, M.P., Underhill, P.A. and Bradshaw, P. (2003). A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles. Current Biology, 13(11), 979-984.