Brazil - A Place

Brazil – A Place

Summary

  • Politics
    • Name: Brazil
    • Capital: Brasilia
    • 2 Letter Code: BR
    • 3 Letter Code: BRA
  • Land
    • Contenent: The Americas
    • Region: South America
    • Total Land: 8,515,767 (3,287,956)
    • Land: 8,460,415 (3,266,584)
    • Water: 55,352 (21,372)
  • People
    • Population: 188,078,227
    • Birth Rate: 16.56 per 1,000
    • Death Rate: 6.17 per 1,000
    • Infant Mortality: 29.61 per 1,000
    • Literacy: 90.00%
  • Economy
    • Agriculture: 8.4%%
    • Industry: 40%%
    • Service: 51.6%%

Map

Brazil is officially the Federative Republic of Brazil. It is a country in South America. It has both tropical and subtropical regions. These include wetlands, savannas, plateaus, and low mountains. It does not have high mountains. Brazil is home to most of the Amazon River basin. That includes the Amazon river and vast rain-forests. The Amazon river is the largest river in the world.

History

Coming soon.

Modern Times

The population of Brazil is numbered at 207 million. Most of the people are of white ethnicity (47.7%), mulatto (43.1%) – mixed black and white, black (7.6%), Asian (1.1%) and indigenous (0.4%).

There is wide diversity in religions as well. Most of the people are Roman Catholic (64.6%). Next comes Protestant (22.2%), spiritualist (2.2%), none (8%) and the rest are unspecified.

Portuguese is the main language of Brazil and is most widely spoken. German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a few other languages are less commonly spoken.

Genetics

This section is under development.

mtDNA

Genographic ProjectGeno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.

Hg IDHg Build 16Birth CountryMother's Birth CountryMaternal Grandmother's Birth Country
Hap10069387L3e2b1a2BrazilBrazilUnspecified
Hap10069600L3f1United StatesBrazilBrazil
Hap10069656L3f1b1aBrazilUnspecifiedUnspecified
Hap10071471N1a1a1aBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10072365R0aUnited StatesItalyBrazil
Hap10072432R0a1aBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10072771R2BrazilUnspecifiedUnspecified
Hap10073119T1aBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10073120T1aBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10074884T1a5BrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10075065T2BrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10078710T2b3BrazilBrazilUnspecified
Hap10080267T2b7a1CanadaBrazilUnspecified
Hap10080581T2c1dBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10082570U2e1a1BrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10083991U3a1cBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10084191U3b1BrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10086619U5a1a1BrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10087915U5a1bBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10088796U5a1b1dBrazilBrazilUnspecified
Hap10090613U5a2dBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10091329U5b1b1aBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10092748U5b2a2BrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10094277U6a1b1BrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10094286U6a1b1bBrazilBrazilUnspecified
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Sources and Resources

Background

Coming soon.

Journal Articles

  • Braganholi, D.F., Ambrosio, I.B., Polverari, F.S., Martinez, J. and Cicarelli, R.M.B. (2018). 500 Years Later: Understanding the Genetic Ancestry of the Southeast Region, Brazil. Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series, 6, e370-e371.
  • Carelli, Valerio; Achilli, Alessandro; Valentino, Maria L.; Rengo, Chiara; Semino, Ornella; Pala, Maria; Olivieri, Anna; Mattiazzi, Marina; Pallotti, Francesco; Carrara, Franco; Zeviani, Massimo; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Carducci, Carla; Valle, Giorgio; Simionat (2006). Haplogroup Effects and Recombination of Mitochondrial DNA: Novel Clues from the Analysis of Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Pedigrees. American journal of human genetics, 78(4), 564-574.
  • de Souza Goes, Andrea C.; de Carvalho, Elizeu F.; Gomes, Iva; da Silva, Dayse A.; Gil, Erica H.; Amorim, Antonio & Gusm ao, Leonor (2005). Population and mutation analysis of 17 Y-STR loci from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). International journal of legal medicine, 119(2), 70-76.
  • Goncalves, Vanessa F.; Parra, Flavia C.; Goncalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Rodrigues-Carvalho, Claudia; Silva, Hilton P. & Pena, Sergio D. (2010). Recovering mitochondrial DNA lineages of extinct Amerindian nations in extant homopatric Brazilian populations. Investigative genetics, 1(1), 13.
  • Hadassa C Santos, Andréa V R Horimoto, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Fernanda Rodrigues-Soares, Mauricio L Barreto, Bernardo L Horta, Maria F Lima-Costa, Mateus H Gouveia, Moara Machado, Thiago M Silva, José M Sanches, Nubia Esteban, Wagner CS Magalhaes, Maíra R Rodrigues, Fernanda S G Kehdy and Alexandre C Pereira The Brazilian EPIGEN Project Consortium (2016). A minimum set of ancestry informative markers for determining admixture proportions in a mixed American population: the Brazilian set. European Journal of Human Genetics, 24(5), 725–731.
  • Jannuzzi, J., Alho, C.S., Fridman, C., Ferreira, S.R.B., Braganholi, D.F., Ambrosio, I.B., Cicarelli, R.M.B., Gomes, V., Carvalho, E.F. and Gusmão, L. (2017). Genetic characterization of four Brazilian states with 25 Yfiler®Plus markers. Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series, -, -.
  • Kimura, L., Nunes, K., Macedo‐Souza, L.I., Rocha, J., Meyer, D. and Mingroni‐Netto, R.C. (2017). Inferring paternal history of rural African-derived Brazilian populations from Y chromosomes. American Journal of Human Biology, in press, in press.
  • Leite, Fabio P. N.; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Carvalho, Bianca A.; Kommers, Tricia; Matte, Cecilia H. F.; Raimann, Paulo E.; Schwengber, Solange P.; Sortica, Vinicius A.; Tsuneto, Luiza T.; Petzl-Erler, M. Luiza; Salzano, Francisco M. & Hutz, Mara H. (2008). Y-STR analysis in Brazilian and South Amerindian populations. American Journal of Human Biology, 20(3), 359-363.
  • Lezirovitz, Karina; Pardono, Eliete; de Mello Auricchio, Maria T. B.; de Carvalho; Lopes, Juliana J.; Abreu-Silva, Ronaldo S.; Romanos, Jihane; Batissoco, Ana C. & Mingroni-Netto, Regina C. (2007). Unexpected genetic heterogeneity in a large consanguineous Brazilian pedigree presenting deafness. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16(1), 89-96.
  • Lins, Tulio C.; Vieira, Rodrigo G.; Abreu, Breno S.; Grattapaglia, Dario & Pereira, Rinaldo W. (2010). Genetic composition of Brazilian population samples based on a set of twenty-eight ancestry informative SNPs. American Journal of Human Biology, 22(2), 187-192.
  • Lopes Maciel, Luana G.; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Elzemar M.; Carneiro Dos Santos, Ney P.; Ribeiro Dos Santos, ^Andrea; Guerreiro, Jo ao F. & Santos, Sidney (2011). Afro-Derived Amazonian Populations: Inferring Continental Ancestry and Population Substructure. Human Biology, 83(5), 627-636.
  • Marrero, Andrea R.; Bravi, Claudio; Stuart, Steven; Long, Jeffrey C.; Pereira das Neves Leite, Fá bio; Kommers, Trí cia; Carvalho, Claudia M. B.; Pena, Sergio D.; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Salzano, Francisco M.; C&aacute & tira Bortolini, Maria (2007). Pre- and Post-Columbian Gene and Cultural Continuity: The Case of the Gaucho from Southern Brazil. Human Heredity, 64(3), 160-171.
  • Marrero, Andrea R.; Pereira Das Neves Leite, Fabio; De Almeida Carvalho, Bianca; Martins Peres, Leandro; Kommers, Tricia C.; M^anica Da Cruz, Ivana; Salzano, Francisco M.; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Araujo Da Silva Junior, Wilson & Catira Bortolini, Maria (2005). Heterogeneity of the genome ancestry of individuals classified as White in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. American Journal of Human Biology, 17(4), 496-506.
  • Marrero, Andrea R.; Silva-Junior, Wilson A.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Hutz, Mara H.; Petzl-Erler, Maria L.; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Salzano, Francisco M. & Bortolini, Maria C. (2007). Demographic and evolutionary trajectories of the Guarani and Kaingang natives of Brazil. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 132(2), 301-310.
  • Nogueira, T.L.S., Alem, L., Cunha, M.A., Maciel, P.O.M., Valentin, E.S.B., Santos, O.C.L., Silva, D.A. and Carvalho, E.F. (2017). MTDNA control region analysis of North Brazilian population. Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series, -, -.
  • Palha, T., Gusmão, L., Ribeiro-Rodrigues, E., Guerreiro, J.F., Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Â. and Santos, S. (2012). Disclosing the Genetic Structure of Brazil through Analysis of Male Lineages with Highly Discriminating Haplotypes. PLoS ONE, 7(7), e40007+.
  • Posth, C., Nakatsuka, N., Lazaridis, I, Skoglund, P., Mallick, S., Lamnidis, T.C., Rohland, N., Nagele, K., Adamski, N., Bertolini, E. Broomandkhoshbacht, N., Cooper, A., Culleton, B.J., Ferraz, T., Ferry, M., Furtwangler, A., Haak, W., Harkins, K., Harper, T.K., Hunemeier, T., Lawson, A.M., Llamas, B., Michel, M., Nelson, E., Oppenheimer, J., Patterson, N., Schiffels, S., Sedig, J., Stewardson, K., Talamo, S., Wang, C., Hublin, J., Hubbe, M., Harvati, K., Nuevo Delaunay, A., Judith Beier, J., Francken, M., Kaulicke, P., Reyes-Centeno, H., Rademaker, K., Trask, W.R., Mark Robinson, M., Gutierrez, S.M. (2018). Reconstructing the Deep Population History of Central and South America. Cell, -, -.
  • Remualdo, Vanessa Rosalia R. & Oliveira, Rogerio Nogueira N. (2007). Analysis of mitochondrial DNA from the teeth of a cadaver maintained in formaldehyde. The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology, 28(2), 145-146.
  • Schaan, A.P., Costa, L., Santos, D., Modesto, A., Amador, M., Lopes, C., Rabenhorst, S.H., Montenegro, R., Souza, B.D., Lopes, T. and Yoshioka, F.K. (2017). mtDNA structure: the women who formed the Brazilian Northeast. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 17(1), 185.
  • Silva, Dayse A.; Carvalho, Elizeu; Costa, Guilherme; Tavares, Ligia; Amorim, Antonio & Gusm ao, Leonor (2006). Y-chromosome genetic variation in Rio De Janeiro population. American Journal of Human Biology, 18(6), 829-837.