Australia – A place

Summary

Continent: Australia

Population: 24,450,561 (2017 UN)

Literacy:

Flag

Australia Flag

Map

Australia map

Australia is both a country and a continent. More broadly, it is part of Oceania.

The climate of Australia is arid to semiarid. It is temperate in the south and east and tropical in the north. Most of the land is low plateau with deserts. There are fertile plains in the southeast.

History

The first Europeans to reach Australia were the English. They first came in the 1600s. It was Captain James Cook who claimed part of the eastern coast for Great Britain in 1770. By 1829, Great Britain had claimed all of Australia. Until 1901, Australia was divided into British colonies.

Between 40,000 to 70,000 years ago, Aboriginal Australians arrived on the Australian mainland by sea. Their artistic, musical and spiritual traditions are among the oldest known to man. The first recorded landing on Australia by Europeans was in 1606 by the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, and in 1770, Captain Cook claimed the eastern part of Australia for Great Britain.

After America gained independence from Britain, it was no longer possible to send convicts there. As an alternative to this, the British government decided to use Australia as a new penal colony. In January 1788, the first fleet of 11 ships from Britain arrived in Botany Bay in order to form New South Wales as a Penal Colony.

The discovery of gold and the fertile lands made Australia a desirable location in the 1850s. The Eureka Rebellion in 1854, a protest against taxation, is referred to as a turning point in the democracy of Australia. As a result of the gold rush, some 50,000 Chinese immigrants arrived in Australia.

Some, 50 years after the gold rush, on January 1 1901, Australia became an independent nation, and the six states were allowed to govern in their own right as the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia participated in both World Wars with almost 40% of males aged 18-44 enlisted in the army.

With the end of the wars, including the Vietnam war, Australia saw a steady influx of immigrants. This influx is reflected in the diversity and inclusion present in Australia today.

Modern Times

The population of Australia is now over 24 million. The major ethnic groups are English (25.9%), Australia (25.4%), Irish (7.5%), Scottish (6.4%), Italian (3.3%), German (3.2%), Chinese (3.1%), Indian (1.4%), Greek (1.4%), and Dutch (1.2%).

The religious groups include Protestant (23.1%), Roman Catholic (22.6%), other Christian (4.2%), Muslim (2.6%), Buddhist (2.4%), Orthodox (0.2%), and Hindu (1.9%).

Most of the population speaks English (76.8%). Other languages spoken include Mandarin (1.6%), Italian (1.4%), Arabic (1.3%), Greek (1.2%), Cantonese (1.2%), and Vietnamese (1.1%).

Genetics

This section is under development.

mtDNA

Genographic ProjectGeno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.

Hg IDHg Build 16Birth CountryMother's Birth CountryMaternal Grandmother's Birth Country
Hap10000664H1AustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10000901H5a1AustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10001223H3AustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10001235H52AustraliaAustraliaUnspecified
Hap10001266H15a1UnspecifiedAustraliaAustralia
Hap10001441H1c1AustraliaAustraliaUnspecified
Hap10001583H1ajAustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10001735H6aAustraliaAustraliaUnspecified
Hap10002259H1bUnited StatesAustraliaUnspecified
Hap10002384H10a1a1AustraliaAustraliaUnspecified
Hap10002403H1e1aAustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10003001H6a1aAustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10003024H24aAustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10003170H2a2a1AustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10003217H1b1AustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10003293H4a1a4bAustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10003329H6a1aCanadaAustraliaUnspecified
Hap10003419HUnspecifiedAustraliaAustralia
Hap10003507HAustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10003812H51AustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10003908HV0dAustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10003962HVAustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10004134H2a2bAustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10004211H3AustraliaAustraliaAustralia
Hap10004444HVAustraliaBritish Dependent TerritoriesAustralia
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Sources and Resources

Background

Australia – CIA FactBook

Journal Articles

  • Veth, P., Ward, I., Manne, T., Ulm, S., Ditchfield, K., Dortch, J., Hook, F., Petchey, F., Hogg, A., Questiaux, D. and Demuro, M. (2017). Early human occupation of a maritime desert, Barrow Island, North-West Australia. Quaternary Science Reviews, 168, 19-29.
  • Malaspinas, A.S., Westaway, M.C., Muller, C., Sousa, V.C., Lao, O., Alves, I., Bergström, A., Athanasiadis, G., Cheng, J.Y., Crawford, J.E. & Heupink, T.H. (2016). A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia. Nature, in press, in press.
  • Rasmussen, M., Guo, X., Wang, Y., Lohmueller, K.E., Rasmussen, S., Albrechtsen, A., Skotte, L., Lindgreen, S., Metspalu, M., Jombart, T. and Kivisild, T. (2011). An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia. Science, 334(6052), 94-98.
  • Kumar, S., Ravuri, R.R., Koneru, P., Urade, B.P., Sarkar, B.N., Chandrasekar, A. and Rao, V.R. (2009). Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9(1), 1.
  • Tim H. Heupink, Sankar Subramanian, Joanne L. Wright, Phillip Endicott, Michael Carrington Westaway, Leon Huynen, Walther Parson, Craig D. Millar, Eske Willerslevf, David M. Lambert (2016). Ancient mtDNA sequences from the First Australians revisited. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in press, in press.
  • Taylor, Duncan; Nagle, Nano; Ballantyne, Kaye N.; van Oorschot, Roland A. H.; Wilcox, Stephen; Henry, Julianne; Turakulov, Rust & Mitchell, R. John (2012). An investigation of admixture in an Australian Aboriginal Y-chromosome STR database. Forensic Science International: Genetics, 6(5), 532-538.
  • Byrne, Enda M.; McRae, Allan F.; Zhao, Zhen-Zhen; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W. & Visscher, Peter M. (2008). The use of common mitochondrial variants to detect and characterise population structure in the Australian population: implications for genome-wide association studies. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16(11), 1396-1403.
  • Hudjashov, Georgi; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A.; Endicott, Phillip; Sanchez, Juan J.; Lin, Alice A.; Shen, Peidong; Oefner, Peter; Renfrew, Colin; Villems, Richard & Forster, Peter (2007). Revealing the prehistoric settlement of Australia by Y chromosome and mtDNA analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(21), 8726-8730.
  • van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila M.; Ingman, Max; Roberts-Thomson, June & Harding, Rosalind M. (2006). Mitochondrial genomics identifies major haplogroups in Aboriginal Australians. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 131(2), 282-294.