Armenia – A Place

Summary

Continent: Europe

Population: 2,930,450 (2017 UN)

Literacy: 99.8%

Flag

Armenia flag

Map

Armenia map

Armenia is officially the Republic of Armenia. It is a country in Western Asia or Southwestern Asia. Located, between Turkey and Azerbaijan, Armenia views itself as part of Europe. However, geo-politically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both.

The climate is highland continental with hot summers and cold winters. In the Armenian Highland there are mountains, little forest land, and fast flowing rivers.

There is good soil in the Aras River valley. About 60% of the land is used for agriculture. Most of that is pasture land.

History

For most of its history, Armenia has been an independent nation. However, there have been times when it was controlled by foreign empires. These have included the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman empires.

The first mention of Armina (Armenia) appears in the cuneiform writings of the time of King Darius I of Persia (6th-5th centuries BCR). However, the name given to the Armenians -gai (jai) – comes from the country of Gaiasa (Jaiasa). It is mentioned in the Hittite scriptures of the 12th century BCE.

The kingdom of Urartu founded for the first time Armenian political life. Between 883 and 590 BC, this kingdom was one of the main rivals of Assyria. They managed to unify the different tribes and principalities present on the present territory of Armenia.

The ancient city of Urartu is the origin of the capital of present-day Armenia, Yerevan, founded in 782 BC under the name of Erebouni by King Argisthi I.

In the 16th century, eastern and western Armenia fell under Persian rule and Ottoman rule respectively. There was a revolt in the 20 century for independence. This was during World War I. The Ottoman Empire conducted forced resettlement and brutal practices in western Armenia. These resulted in the mass deaths, genocide, of over a million ethnic Armenians.

Modern Times

Armenia now has a population of almost 3 million. Armenian is the official language. It is spoken by 97.9% of the population. Russian is widely spoken as a second language. The Yezidi minority group speaks Kurdish. One to two percent of the population speaks other languages.

Most of the modern population is ethnic Armenian 98.1% or Yezidi (Kurd) 1.2%.

The majority religions are Armenian Apostolic 92.6% and Evangelical 1%.

Genetics

This section is under development.

mtDNA

Genographic ProjectGeno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.

Hg IDHg Build 16Birth CountryMother's Birth CountryMaternal Grandmother's Birth Country
Hap10000987H1jUnited StatesUnited StatesArmenia
Hap10024957H46ArmeniaArmeniaArmenia
Hap10034496H39aUnited StatesUnited StatesArmenia
Hap10061715K1a4LebanonArmeniaArmenia
Hap10062834K1a4b1LebanonLebanonArmenia
Hap10071801N1b1a2United StatesUnited StatesArmenia
Hap10072430R0a1aArmeniaArmeniaArmenia
Hap10075023T1b3ArmeniaArmeniaArmenia
Hap10076594T2bLebanonArmeniaUnspecified
Hap10081795T2gArmeniaArmeniaArmenia
Hap10082033U1a1aArmeniaArmeniaUnspecified
Hap10082227U1bArmeniaArmeniaArmenia
Hap10082469U2d2GeorgiaGeorgiaArmenia
Hap10083628U3United StatesUnited StatesArmenia
Hap10084189U3b1United StatesUnited StatesArmenia
Hap10099680W6ArmeniaArmeniaArmenia
Hap10099928X2RussiaArmeniaArmenia
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Sources and Resources

Background

Journal Articles

  • Yepiskoposyan, L., Hovhannisyan, A. & Khachatryan, Z. (2017). Genetic Structure of the Armenian Population. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, -, -.
  • Haber, M., Mezzavilla, M., Xue, Y., Comas, D., Gasparini, P., Zalloua, P., & Tyler-Smith, C. (2016). Genetic evidence for an origin of the Armenians from Bronze Age mixing of multiple populations. European Journal of Human Genetics, 24, 931–936.
  • Herrera, Kristian J.; Lowery, Robert K.; Hadden, Laura; Calderon, Silvia; Chiou, Carolina; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Regueiro, Maria; Underhill, Peter A. & Herrera, Rene J. (2012). Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists. European Journal of Human Genetics, 20(3), 313-320.
  • Yepiskoposian, L., Margarian, A., Andonian, L., Khudoyan, A., & Harutyunian, A. (2010). Genetic Affinity between the Armenian Yezidis and the Iraqi Kurds. Iran and the Caucasus, 14(1), 37-42.
  • Weale, Michael; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Jager, Rolf; Hovhannisyan, Nelli; Khudoyan, Armine; Burbage-Hall, Oliver; Bradman, Neil & Thomas, Mark (2001). Armenian Y chromosome haplotypes reveal strong regional structure within a single ethno-national group. Human Genetics, 109(6), 659-674.
  • Balanovsky, O., Chukhryaeva, M., Zaporozhchenko, V., Urasin, V., Zhabagin, M., Hovhannisyan, A., Agdzhoyan, A., Dibirova, K., Kuznetsova, M., Koshel, S. and Pocheshkhova, E. (2017). Genetic differentiation between upland and lowland populations shapes the Y-chromosomal landscape of West Asia. , -, 1-14.
  • Schonberg, Anna; Theunert, Christoph; Li, Mingkun; Stoneking, Mark & Nasidze, Ivan (2011). High-throughput sequencing of complete human mtDNA genomes from the Caucasus and West Asia: high diversity and demographic inferences. European Journal of Human Genetics, 19(9), 988-994.