To resolve the phylogeny of certain mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in eastern Europe and estimate their evolutionary age, a total of 73 samples representing mitochondrial haplogroups U4, HV*, and R1 were selected for complete mitochondrial genome sequencing from a collection of about 2,000 control region sequences sampled in eastern (Russians, Belorussians, and Ukrainians) and western (Poles, Czechs, and Slovaks) Slavs.
Haplogroup A10 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 3,300 and 12,300 years (Behar et al., 2012b).
Haplogroup R1a1a1a is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity.
To shed more light on the processes leading to crystallization of a Slavic identity, we investigated variability of complete mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups H5 and H6 (63 mtDNA genomes) from the populations of Eastern and Western Slavs, including new samples of Poles, Ukrainians and Czechs presented here. Molecular dating implies formation of H5 approximately 11.516 thousand years ago (kya) in the areas of southern Europe. Within ancient haplogroup H6, dated at around 1528 kya, there is a subhaplogroup H6c, which probably survived the last glaciation in Europe and has undergone expansion only 34 kya, together with the ancestors of some European groups, including the Slavs, because H6c has been detected in Czechs, Poles and Slovaks.
Genetic structure of native circumpolar populations based on autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosome DNA markers
This study investigates the genetic structure of the present-day inhabitants of Beringia in order to answer questions concerning their origins and evolution. According to recent studies, the ancestors of Native Americans paused for a time in Beringia, during which they differentiated genetically from other Asians before peopling the New World. Furthermore, the Koryaks of Kamchatka share a “ubiquitous” allele (D9S1120) with Native Americans, indicating they may have descended from the same ancestral Beringian population that gave rise to the New World founders.