Haplogroup X2n is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity. It has a strong presence in Europe in modern populations.
Behar et al., 2012b did not include an age for this branch. However, based on analyis from YFull, it likely dates to the Upper Paleolithic or the last ice age.
Based on its age and where it is found today, the origin of X2n is most likely to be Western Eurasia.
X2n has wide distribution across southern and parts of eastern Europe. It is found in the Czech Republic, Italy, European Russia, and Greece.
mtDNA Haplogroup X2n Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|15||X2n||C64T G263A G4659A T9903C C15793T C16266T||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||X2n||C64T G263A G4659A T9903C C15793T C16266T||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||X2n||C64T G263A G4659A T9903C C15793T C16266T||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup X2n Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5005346||Behar et al., 2012b||X2n||X2n*||none||X2n:309d, 315.1C, 326, 3426C, 7492, 16182C, 16183C|
|Hap5009092||Italy||Gasparre et al., 2007||X2n||X2n*||none||X2n:309.1C, 315.1C, 4953, 15910, 16183C|
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Gasparre, G., Porcelli, A.M., Bonora, E., Pennisi, L.F., Toller, M., Iommarini, L., Ghelli, A., Moretti, M., Betts, C.M., Martinelli, G.N. and Ceroni, A.R. (2007). Disruptive mitochondrial DNA mutations in complex I subunits are markers of oncocytic phenotype in thyroid tumors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(21), 9001-9006.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup X
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup X
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
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