Haplogroup X2m2 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 800 and 8,100 years (Behar et al., 2012b).
mtDNA Haplogroup X2m2 Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|14||X2m2||C4059T C6713T T8473C T16217C||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||X2m2||C4059T C6713T T8473C T16217C||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||X2m2||C4059T C6713T T8473C T16217C||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||X2m2||C4059T C6713T T8473C T16217C||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup X2m2 Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5004575||Behar et al., 2012b||X2m2||X2m2||none||X2m2:309.1C, 315.1C, 14182, 16248|
|Hap5004747||Behar et al., 2012b||X2m2||X2m2||none||X2m2:309.1C, 315.1C, 11008, 15894|
|Hap5012726||Italy||Raule et al., 2014||X2m2||X2m2||none||X2m2:309.1C, 315.1C, 11008, 14299, 15894|
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Raule, N., Sevini, F., Li, S., Barbieri, A., Tallaro, F., Lomartire, L., Vianello, D., Montesanto, A., Moilanen, J.S., Bezrukov, V. and Blanché, H. (2014). The co-occurrence of mtDNA mutations on different oxidative phosphorylation subunits, not detected by haplogroup analysis, affects human longevity and is population specific. Aging cell, 13(3), 401-407.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup X
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup X
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
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