Haplogroup X2m is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 8,700 and 19,800 years (Behar et al., 2012b).
Behar et al., 2012b places the age of X2m at between 8,700 and 19,800 years. This is a wide range. It fits with either the last ice age or the beginning of the Neolithic (farming culture).
Both because it is mainly found in Europe today and because its age dates to the last ice age, the origin of X2m is most likely Western Eurasia.
Today mtDNA haplogroup X2m is most common in the British Isles and in Italy.
mtDNA Haplogroup X2m Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|14||X2m||G143A T226C||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||X2m||G143A G153A!||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||X2m||G143A G153A!||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||X2m||G143A G153A!||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup X2m Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup X
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup X
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
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