Age: 12,940.8 ± 6,331.2; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: C16248T
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: X2
Descendant branch(s): X2i1


Haplogroup X2i is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 6,600 and 19,300 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

mtDNA Haplogroup X2i Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

14X2iC16248TReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15X2iC16248TReleased 30 Sep 2012
16X2iC16248TReleased 19 Feb 2014
17X2iC16248TReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup X2i Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5007880Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneX2i:224, 309.1C, 315.1C, 6911, 10046, 12241d, 16183C, 16380
Hap5008692Fernandes et al., 2012noneX2i:315.1C, 2403, 8966, 9716, 11928, 16519
Hap5008694Fernandes et al., 2012noneX2i:309.1C, 315.1C, 11290, 15052, 15074, 15930, 16183C
Hap5014043Schönberg et al., 2011noneX2i:309N, 310, 16092, 16183C

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10101265United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am

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