Haplogroup X2i is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 6,600 and 19,300 years (Behar et al., 2012b).
mtDNA Haplogroup X2i Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|14||X2i||C16248T||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||X2i||C16248T||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||X2i||C16248T||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||X2i||C16248T||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup X2i Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5007880||-||Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016||X2i||-||none||X2i:224, 309.1C, 315.1C, 6911, 10046, 12241d, 16183C, 16380|
|Hap5008692||Fernandes et al., 2012||X2i||X2i2a||none||X2i:315.1C, 2403, 8966, 9716, 11928, 16519|
|Hap5008694||United Arab Emirates||Fernandes et al., 2012||X2i||X2i*||none||X2i:309.1C, 315.1C, 11290, 15052, 15074, 15930, 16183C|
|Hap5014043||Schönberg et al., 2011||X2i||X2i*||none||X2i:309N, 310, 16092, 16183C|
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Fernandes, Veronica; Alshamali, Farida; Alves, Marco; Costa, Marta D.; Pereira, Joana B.; Silva, Nuno M.; Cherni, Lotfi; Harich, Nourdin; Cerny, Viktor; Soares, Pedro; Richards, Martin B. & Pereira, Luisa (2012). The Arabian Cradle: Mitochondrial Relicts of the First Steps along the Southern Route out of Africa. American journal of human genetics, 90(2), 347-355.
- FamilyTreeDNA & Greenspan (2006). Sequences Directly Submited by FamilyTreeDNA on Customers’ Behalf. , -, -.
- Schonberg, Anna; Theunert, Christoph; Li, Mingkun; Stoneking, Mark & Nasidze, Ivan (2011). High-throughput sequencing of complete human mtDNA genomes from the Caucasus and West Asia: high diversity and demographic inferences. European Journal of Human Genetics, 19(9), 988-994.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup X
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup X
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
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