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Age: 5,319.9 ± 3,314.2; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: T204C G207A A5186G T11878C
Parent Branch: X2d
Descendant branch(s): X2d1a


Haplogroup X2d1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 2,000 and 8,600 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

mtDNA Haplogroup X2d1 Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

14X2d1T204C G207A A5186G T11878CReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15X2d1T204C G207A A5186G T11878CReleased 30 Sep 2012
16X2d1T204C G207A A5186G T11878CReleased 19 Feb 2014
17X2d1T204C G207A A5186G T11878CReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup X2d1 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5002097Behar et al., 2012bnoneX2d1:315.1C, 523-524d, 709, 8400, 16183C
Hap5003266Behar et al., 2012bnoneX2d1:315.1C, 709, 11084, 16256
Hap5007719Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneX2d1:309.1C, 315.1C, 709, 10389, 10586, 13299, 16183C, 16223
Hap5008712Fernandes et al., 2012X2d1:207X2d1:315.1C, 709, 4527, 4529, 16093, 16183C
Hap5014037Schönberg et al., 2011noneX2d1:310, 523-524d, 709, 8400, 14047N, 16183C
Hap5023679Levin et al., 1999noneX2d1:309.1C, 315.1C, 709, 12612, 16183C, 16193.1C

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10101151United StatesUnited StatesItalyItaly
Hap10101152JapanUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10101153United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10101154United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10101155United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10101156United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am

-001-11-30T00:00:00+00:00June 6th, 2016|