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Age: 4,463.7 ± 2,763.3; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: C8814T C16248T
Parent Branch: X2b
Descendant branch(s): X2b11 X2b12 X2b13


Haplogroup X2b1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 1,700 and 7,200 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

mtDNA Haplogroup X2b1 Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01X2b18814 16183C 16248Released 27 Aug 2008
02X2b18814 16183C 16248Released 14 Oct 2008
03X2b18814 16248Released 1 Mar 2009
04X2b18814 16248Released 10 May 2009
05X2b18814 16248Released 8 Jul 2009
06X2b18814 16248Released 28 Sep 2009
07X2b18814 16248Released 10 Nov 2009
08X2b18814 16248Released 21 Mar 2010
09X2b18814 16248Released 20 Jun 2010
10X2b18814 16248Released 10 Aug 2010
11X2b18814 16248Released 7 Feb 2011
12X2b18814 16248Released 20 Jul 2011
13X2b18814 16248Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14X2b1C8814T C16248TReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15X2b1C8814T C16248TReleased 30 Sep 2012
16X2b1C8814T C16248TReleased 19 Feb 2014
17X2b1C8814T C16248TReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup X2b1 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5000393Behar et al., 2008anoneX2b1:315.1C, 1555, 2308, 16183C
Hap5000409Behar et al., 2008anoneX2b1:315.1C, 6335, 8277, 16183C

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10100510United StatesMoroccoUnspecifiedMorocco
Hap10100511United StatesUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnited States

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am

-001-11-30T00:00:00+00:00June 6th, 2016|