Age: 9,675.9 ± 2,466.0; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: C8393T G15927A
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: X2b'd
Descendant branch(s): X2b1 X2b10 X2b2 X2b3 X2b4 X2b5 X2b6 X2b7 X2b8 X2b9


Haplogroup X2b is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 7,200 and 12,100 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

mtDNA Haplogroup X2b Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01X2b226 8393 13708 15927Released 27 Aug 2008
02X2b226 8393 13708 15927Released 14 Oct 2008
03X2b8393 13708 15927Released 1 Mar 2009
04X2b8393 13708 15927Released 10 May 2009
05X2b8393 13708 15927Released 8 Jul 2009
06X2b8393 13708 15927Released 28 Sep 2009
07X2b8393 13708 15927Released 10 Nov 2009
08X2b8393 13708 15927Released 21 Mar 2010
09X2b8393 15927Released 20 Jun 2010
10X2b8393 15927Released 10 Aug 2010
11X2b8393 15927Released 7 Feb 2011
12X2b8393 15927Released 20 Jul 2011
13X2b8393 15927Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14X2bC8393T G15927AReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15X2bC8393T G15927AReleased 30 Sep 2012
16X2bC8393T G15927AReleased 19 Feb 2014
17X2bC8393T G15927AReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup X2b Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5002246Behar et al., 2012bX2b:225X2b:315.1C, 513, 9083, 16092, 16179, 16183C
Hap5005444Bertolin et al., 2011noneX2b:189, 220N, 304N, 305N, 308N, 309N, 313N, 5504N, 7333N, 7334N, 7335N, 8061N, 8910, 9909N, 9910N, 11379N, 12700N, 12701N, 12703N, 13587N, 13756N, 16182C, 16183C, 16544N
Hap5005447Bertolin et al., 2011noneX2b:105-110d, 189, 220N, 309-315d, 2707N, 3485N, 5897N, 6846N, 6847N, 7333N, 7334N, 7335N, 7817N, 7819N, 8058N, 8061N, 8910, 9908N, 9909N, 9910N, 9913N, 9914N, 13587N, 13756N, 15003N, 15222N, 16182C, 16183C
Hap5007420Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneX2b:315.1C, 13889
Hap5007427Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneX2b:315.1C, 1462
Hap5008763Fernandes et al., 2012X2b:152, 10398X2b:150, 235, 309.1C, 315.1C, 6509, 10238, 16173, 16183C, 16519
Hap5009574Herrnstadt et al., 2002X2b:146, 152, 153, 225, 247, 16129, 16187, 16230, 16311X2b:1-576d, 14428, 15498C, 16024-16569d
Hap5009614Herrnstadt et al., 2002X2b:146, 152, 153, 225, 247, 16129, 16187, 16230, 16311X2b:1-576d, 6290, 8158, 14323, 16024-16569d
Hap5009760Herrnstadt et al., 2002X2b:146, 152, 153, 225, 247, 16129, 16187, 16230, 16311X2b:1-576d, 16024-16569d
Hap5009830Herrnstadt et al., 2002X2b:146, 152, 153, 225, 247, 16129, 16187, 16230, 16311X2b:1-576d, 16024-16569d
Hap5017902X2b:225X2b:315.1C, 16183C

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10100074CanadaCanadaBritish TerritoriesBritish Territories
Hap10100082United StatesCanadaCanadaCanada
Hap10100083United StatesCanadaCanadaCanada
Hap10100089United StatesUnited StatesGermanyGermany
Hap10100090United StatesUnited StatesGermanyGermany
Hap10100091United StatesUnited StatesHungaryHungary
Hap10100094United KingdomUnited KingdomIrelandIreland

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: August 28, 2018 at 16:32 pm

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