Age: 4,336.3 ± 2,378.6; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Variants: A8422G
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: X2a1
Descendant branch(s): X2a1b1

YFull Info

Name: X2a1b

Age: 6100 to 3000 ybp [95% CI]

Expansion: -

Variants: A8422G

Note: This information does not imply an endorcement of YFull or their methods. It is provided at the request of readers.


Haplogroup X2a1b is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 2,000 and 6,700 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

mtDNA Haplogroup X2a1b Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Variants (Mutations) Notes
04 X2a1b 8422 Released 10 May 2009
05 X2a1b 8422 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 X2a1b 8422 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 X2a1b 8422 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 X2a1b 8422 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 X2a1b 8422 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 X2a1b 8422 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 X2a1b 8422 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 X2a1b 8422 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 X2a1b 8422 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 X2a1b A8422G Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 X2a1b A8422G Released 30 Sep 2012
16 X2a1b A8422G Released 19 Feb 2014
17 X2a1b A8422G Released 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup X2a1b Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Origin Publication Hg BLD16 Hg BLD17 Hg YFull Missing Variants Additional Variants
Hap5007128 Fagundes et al., 2008 X2a1b X2a1b* X2a1b:16093 X2a1b:298, 310.1T, 11229, 16193.1C
Hap5016228 Perego et al., 2009 X2a1b X2a1b2 none X2a1b:309.1C, 315.1C, 11932, 15001, 16183C, 16193.1C
Hap5016229 Canada Perego et al., 2009 X2a1b X2a1b* none X2a1b:309.1C, 315.1C, 16183C

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am

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