Age: 12,726.6 ± 3,497.9; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: East Asia or The Americas
Mutations: A200G A8913G T14502C G16213A
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: X2a’j
Descendant branch(s): X2a1 X2a2


Haplogroup X2a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 9,200 and 16,200 years (Behar et al., 2012b).


Coming Soon


Coming Soon

Ancient DNA

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Coming Soon

Modern Populations

Today, this lineage is found in Native American populations in North America.

mtDNA Haplogroup X2a Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01X2a200 8913 12397 14502 16183C 16213Released 27 Aug 2008
02X2a200 8913 12397 14502 16183C 16213Released 14 Oct 2008
03X2a200 8913 14502 16213Released 1 Mar 2009
04X2a200 8913 14502 16213Released 10 May 2009
05X2a200 8913 14502 16213Released 8 Jul 2009
06X2a200 8913 14502 16213Released 28 Sep 2009
07X2a200 8913 14502 16213Released 10 Nov 2009
08X2a200 8913 14502 16213Released 21 Mar 2010
09X2a200 8913 14502 16213Released 20 Jun 2010
10X2a200 8913 14502 16213Released 10 Aug 2010
11X2a200 8913 14502 16213Released 7 Feb 2011
12X2a200 8913 14502 16213Released 20 Jul 2011
13X2a200 8913 14502 16213Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14X2aA200G A8913G T14502C G16213AReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15X2aA200G A8913G T14502C G16213AReleased 30 Sep 2012
16X2aA200G A8913G T14502C G16213AReleased 19 Feb 2014
17X2aA200G A8913G T14502C G16213AReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup X2a Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10100034United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10100035United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10100036United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10100037United States TerritoriesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10100040United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10100041United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: October 5, 2018 at 10:08 am

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