Haplogroup X is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup N. It was likely born around 32,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)
MtDNA haplogroup X was likely born in West Asia.
Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the X lineage between 20,000 and 43,400 years ago. This means the line was born in the Upper Paleolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.
This timeline is an overview of the X branch’s history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the X lineage. (View in new tab.)
Today, this lineage is found at relatively low frequencies in Europe, the Middle East, and in North American native populations.
National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text
mtDNA Haplogroup X Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|01||X||153 6221 6371 13966 14470 16189 16278 16519||Released 27 Aug 2008|
|02||X||153 6221 6371 13966 14470 16189 16278 16519||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|03||X||153 6221 6371 13966 14470 16183C 16189 16278||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||X||153 6221 6371 13966 14470 16183C 16189 16278||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||X||153 6221 6371 13966 14470 16189 16278||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||X||153 6221 6371 13966 14470 16189 16278||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||X||153 6221 6371 13966 14470 16189 16278||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||X||153 6221 6371 13966 14470 16189 16278||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||X||153 6221 6371 13966 14470 16189 16278||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||X||153 6221 6371 13966 14470 16189 16278||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||X||6221 6371 13966 14470 16189 16278||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||X||6221 6371 13966 14470 16189 16278||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||X||6221 6371 13966 14470 16189 16278||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||X||T6221C C6371T A13966G T14470C T16189C! C16278T!||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||X||T6221C C6371T A13966G T14470C T16189C! C16278T!||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||X||T6221C C6371T A13966G T14470C T16189C! C16278T!||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||X||T6221C C6371T A13966G T14470C T16189C! C16278T!||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup X Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup X
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup X
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
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