Australia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands



Age: 53,483.4 ± 5,526.7; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Southeast Asia or Australia
Variants: T8404C
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: N
Descendant branch(s): S1 S2 S3 S4 S5

YFull Info

Name: S
Age: 54100 to 47900 ybp [95% CI]
Expansion: -
 Variants: T8404C

Note: This information does not imply an endorsement of YFull or their methods. It is provided at the request of readers.

Haplogroup S is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup N. It was likely born around 54,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)


It is not clear yet if the mtDNA S line was born in Southeast Asia or in Australia.


Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the Q lineage between 48,000 and 59,000 years ago. This means the line was born in the Upper Paleolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.

Ancient DNA

Coming Soon


This timeline is an overview of the S branch’s history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the S lineage. (View in new tab.)

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: S
Age: 25,400 ± 5,200 Years Ago
Origin: Australia
Blurb: This branch in your maternal ancestors’ journey marks the point where groups traveled to Sahul, the landmass that once connected New Guinea and Australia. Your ancestors settled in Australia. This lineage is about 34 percent of the native population there and is present exclusively in population groups there.Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup S Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Variants (Mutations) Notes
01 S 8404 Released 27 Aug 2008
02 S 8404 Released 14 Oct 2008
03 S 8404 Released 1 Mar 2009
04 S 8404 Released 10 May 2009
05 S 8404 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 S 8404 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 S 8404 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 S 8404 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 S 8404 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 S 8404 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 S 8404 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 S 8404 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 S 8404 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 S T8404C Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 S T8404C Released 30 Sep 2012
16 S T8404C Released 19 Feb 2014
17 S T8404C Released 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup S Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.

Hg IDOriginPublicationHg BLD16 Hg BLD17 Hg YFullMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5010850 Australia Kivisild et al., 2006 S S S:146, 152, 195, 247, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16311 S:1-435d, 709, 1811, 2792, 10358, 12358, 13594, 16022-16569d

Sources & Resources

Related Sources


Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


Peoples: Aboriginal Australian | Places: Australia

Last Updated: [lastupdated]


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