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Age: 8,599.4 ± 5,102.8; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: G5147A G5460A T6956C A8296G T13789C
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: U2d
Descendant branch(s): U2d2a


Haplogroup U2d2 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 3,500 and 13,700 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

mtDNA Haplogroup U2d2 Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
14 U2d2 G5147A G5460A T6956C A8296G T13789C Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 U2d2 G5147A G5460A T6956C A8296G T13789C Released 30 Sep 2012
16 U2d2 G5147A G5460A T6956C A8296G T13789C Released 19 Feb 2014
17 U2d2 G5147A G5460A T6956C A8296G T13789C Released 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup U2d2 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5005357 Behar et al., 2012b none U2d2:309.1C, 315.1C, 8676, 16093, 16183C
Hap5005384 Behar et al., 2012b U2d2:12308 U2d2:188, 12307, 15883, 16183C
Hap5005404 Behar et al., 2012b none U2d2:15883, 16183C
Hap5005425 Behar et al., 2012b none U2d2:204, 385, 4092, 5773, 12397, 14484, 16183C
Hap5013987 Schönberg et al., 2011 U2d2:10398 U2d2:125G, 143, 310, 4038
Hap5020974 Derenko et al., 2013 none U2d2:309.1C, 315.1C, 9456, 12950, 15883, 15895, 16183C
Hap5021058 Derenko et al., 2013 U2d2:199 U2d2:315.1C, 16178, 16183C
Hap5022092 Maca-Meyer et al., 2001 U2d2:199, 263, 6956, 8296, 8938, 10398 U2d2:315.1C, 6962, 9545T

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10082473United StatesUnited StatesRussiaRussia
Hap10082474United StatesDenmarkUnspecifiedDenmark
Hap10082475United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am

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