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Age: 22,117.0 ± 6,696.1; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: T8023C C8676T C9767T
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: U2c
Descendant branch(s): U2c1a U2c1b


Haplogroup U2c1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 15,400 and 28,800 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

mtDNA Haplogroup U2c1 Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
05 U2c1 8023 8676 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 U2c1 8023 8676 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 U2c1 8023 8676 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 U2c1 8023 8676 9767 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 U2c1 8023 8676 9767 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 U2c1 8023 8676 9767 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 U2c1 8023 8676 9767 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 U2c1 8023 8676 9767 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 U2c1 8023 8676 9767 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 U2c1 T8023C C8676T C9767T Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 U2c1 T8023C C8676T C9767T Released 30 Sep 2012
16 U2c1 T8023C C8676T C9767T Released 19 Feb 2014
17 U2c1 T8023C C8676T C9767T Released 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup U2c1 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5008456 Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016 U2c1:16311 U2c1:125, 127, 128, 152, 309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3796, 7853, 9554, 9707, 10682T, 13443, 13488, 16220, 16270, 16465, 16527
Hap5015439 van der Walt et al. 2012 none U2c1:150, 2756, 4232, 5147, 6752, 9098, 14521, 16254, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10082426United StatesIndiaIndiaIndia
Hap10082427United StatesMyanmarIndiaIndia
Hap10082429South AfricaSouth AfricaSouth AfricaSouth Africa
Hap10082430United KingdomIndiaSri LankaSri Lanka
Hap10082431Sri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri Lanka
Hap10082433South AfricaSouth AfricaUnspecifiedSouth Africa

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am

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