Age: 42,805.7 ± 4,493.4; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: South Asia
Mutations: A16051G
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: U2'3'4'7'8'9
Descendant branch(s): U2a U2b U2c'd U2d U2e


Haplogroup U2 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 38,300 and 47,300 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: U2
Age: 20,950 ± 2,540 Years Ago
Origin: South Asia
Blurb: This part of your ancestors' journey began about 21,000 years ago during the Paleolithic period. The first woman to have these genetic markers was born in South Asia. Though most of her descendants have remained there, others have traveled to Central and West Asia. Some of those who migrated to West and Central Asia continued on to Europe.

Today, this line is present in Iran, where it is about 4 percent of the population, and in Saudi Arabia, where it is about 3 percent of the population. It is part of the Jewish Diaspora, found in groups such as Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews. It is about 3 percent of the current population of India. It is also between 2 and 3 percent of maternal lineages in Denmark, Austria, France, and the Czech Republic. It is present throughout most of Europe at frequencies around 1 percent.

Interest Points: The Markina Gora skeleton from a Paleolithic gravesite in Russia belonged to this lineage. It is also represented in the Neolithic Bell Beaker site in Germany.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup U2 Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01U216051Released 27 Aug 2008
02U216051Released 14 Oct 2008
03U216051Released 1 Mar 2009
05U216051Released 8 Jul 2009
06U216051Released 28 Sep 2009
07U216051Released 10 Nov 2009
08U216051Released 21 Mar 2010
09U216051Released 20 Jun 2010
10U216051Released 10 Aug 2010
11U216051Released 7 Feb 2011
12U216051Released 20 Jul 2011
13U216051Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14U2A16051GReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15U2A16051GReleased 30 Sep 2012
16U2A16051GReleased 19 Feb 2014
17U2A16051GReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup U2 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5016669Krause et al., 2010noneU2:542, 711, 13269, 15262, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: August 26, 2018 at 9:25 am

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