Ads and affiliate links like this help support the Q-M242 project's efforts to test indigenous peoples. Please read the affiliateship and business disclaimers for details. You may also donate directly here.



Age: 45,001.5 ± 3,186.5; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: A1811G
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: U
Descendant branch(s): U2 U3 U4'9 U7 U8


Haplogroup U2'3'4'7'8'9 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 41,800 and 48,200 years (Behar et al., 2012b).


This timeline is an overview of the U2'3'4'7'8'9 branch's history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the U2'3'4'7'8'9 lineage. (View in new tab.)

mtDNA Haplogroup U2'3'4'7'8'9 Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01U2'3'4'7'8'91811Released 27 Aug 2008
02U2'3'4'7'8'91811Released 14 Oct 2008
03U2'3'4'7'8'91811Released 1 Mar 2009
04U2'3'4'7'8'91811Released 10 May 2009
05U2'3'4'7'8'91811Released 8 Jul 2009
06U2'3'4'7'8'91811Released 28 Sep 2009
07U2'3'4'7'8'91811Released 10 Nov 2009
08U2'3'4'7'8'91811Released 21 Mar 2010
09U2'3'4'7'8'91811Released 20 Jun 2010
10U2'3'4'7'8'91811Released 10 Aug 2010
11U2'3'4'7'8'91811Released 7 Feb 2011
12U2'3'4'7'8'91811Released 20 Jul 2011
13U2'3'4'7'8'91811Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14U2'3'4'7'8'9A1811GReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15U2'3'4'7'8'9A1811GReleased 30 Sep 2012
16U2'3'4'7'8'9A1811GReleased 19 Feb 2014
17U2'3'4'7'8'9A1811GReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup U2'3'4'7'8'9 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10082317United StatesIndiaUnspecifiedIndia

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


Peoples: | Places:

Last Updated: Last updated: October 16, 2018 at 2:27 am

2018-10-16T02:27:27+00:00June 6th, 2016|