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Age: 46,531.1 ± 3,289.3; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: West Asia
Mutations: A11467G A12308G G12372A
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: R
Descendant branch(s): U1 U2'3'4'7'8'9 U5 U6


Haplogroup U is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup R. It was likely born around 47,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)


MtDNA haplogroup U was likely born in West Asia.


Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the U lineage between 43,200 and 49,800 years ago. This means the line was born in the Upper Paleolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.

Ancient DNA

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National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: U
Age: 44,280 ± 2,550 Years Ago
Origin: West Asia
Blurb: This branch was born over 44,000 years ago in West Asia. While some members traveled south, back into North Africa, others stem from a group that moved northward and then west.Populations containing this line crossed the rugged Caucasus Mountains in South Russia and moved on to the steppes of the Black Sea, settling the region that makes up the present-day Baltic States. This grassland served as the home base for subsequent movements north into Scandinavia and west into the rest of Europe.
Today, this line is part of populations in Europe, West Asia (including Arabia), North Africa, India, and the North Caucasus Mountains. In Europe, this lineage averages 7 percent of the population. In Scandinavian countries (Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands, etc.) it is between 9 and 16 percent of the population. In England, it is about 12 percent of the population. Toward the Mediterranean, this line is between 10 and 12 percent of the population in Croatia and Greece.

Interest Point: A subtype of this lineage links the Saami people in Scandinavia to Berber populations in North Africa.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup U Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01U11467 12308 12372Released 27 Aug 2008
02U11467 12308 12372Released 14 Oct 2008
03U11467 12308 12372Released 1 Mar 2009
04U11467 12308 12372Released 10 May 2009
05U11467 12308 12372Released 8 Jul 2009
06U11467 12308 12372Released 28 Sep 2009
07U11467 12308 12372Released 10 Nov 2009
08U11467 12308 12372Released 21 Mar 2010
09U11467 12308 12372Released 20 Jun 2010
10U11467 12308 12372Released 10 Aug 2010
11U11467 12308 12372Released 7 Feb 2011
12U11467 12308 12372Released 20 Jul 2011
13U11467 12308 12372Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14UA11467G A12308G G12372AReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15UA11467G A12308G G12372AReleased 30 Sep 2012
16UA11467G A12308G G12372AReleased 19 Feb 2014
17UA11467G A12308G G12372AReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup U Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5013999Schönberg et al., 2011U:146U:146N, 285N, 310, 1700N, 2387N, 8395, 8413N, 10885, 11566, 12879N, 13104N, 13617N, 14047N, 14070N, 14793N, 14996N, 15148N, 15172N, 15218N, 15924N, 15954N, 16083N, 16111N, 16214N, 16249N, 16270N, 16327N, 16362N, 16399N, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


Peoples: | Places: Eurasia and Levantine

Last Updated: Last updated: October 6, 2018 at 16:09 pm

2018-10-06T16:09:37+00:00June 6th, 2016|

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