Age: 42,939.3 ± 5,561.6; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Central Asia
Variants: A249d T6392C G10310A
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: R9
Descendant branch(s): F1 F2 F3 F4

YFull Info

Name: -
Age: -
Expansion: -
 Variants: -

Note: This information does not imply an endorsement of YFull or their methods. It is provided at the request of readers.

Haplogroup F is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup R9. It was likely born in the Central Asia around 43,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)


Most researchers consider the birthplace of F to have been born in Central Asia.


Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the F lineage between 37,378 and 48,500 years ago. This means the line was born in the Upper Paleolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.

Ancient DNA

Coming Soon


This timeline is an overview of the F branch’s history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the F lineage. (View in new tab.)

Modern Populations

Today, this lineage is found throughout much of East Asia. Its highest frequencies there are toward the coast. It is present in Southeast Asia and on the island of Madagascar. In the west, it reaches back toward Europe as far as the Black Sea. It can be found in the far north of South Asia. It is part of isolated populations in the Middle East.

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: F
Age: 42,290 ± 3,400 Years Ago
Origin: Central Asia
Blurb: This point in your maternal line happened about 42,000 years ago in the deserts and plains between the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal in Central Asia.Before the last glacial maximum, some members of this line migrated into East Asia. In East Asia, this line became a founding lineage.

Around 17,000 years ago, a population explosion in East Asia triggered expansion into new lands. From Asia, groups that included this line traveled south along the Pacific coast of Asia.

Today this lineage makes up almost 11 percent of populations in China and over 25 percent of all Southeast Asians. It shows its greatest diversity in Vietnam, where it is about 32 percent of the population. This line has a wide distribution along the Pacific coast. It appears in Filipino and aboriginal Taiwanese populations. It has a decreased frequency distribution farther from Southeast Asia. It is about 5 percent of population in both Korea and Japan. It is part of populations as far north as the Evenks of Central Siberia and as far south as the Kadazan of Borneo.

Interest Point: Some geneticists have linked the spread of this line to the South Pacific islanders to the expansion of Sino-Tibetan languages, which took place sometime around 6,000 to 8,000 years ago.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup F Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Variants (Mutations) Notes
01 F 249d 6392 10310 Released 27 Aug 2008
02 F 249d 6392 10310 Released 14 Oct 2008
03 F 249d 6392 10310 Released 1 Mar 2009
05 F 249d 6392 10310 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 F 249d 6392 10310 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 F 249d 6392 10310 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 F 249d 6392 10310 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 F 249d 6392 10310 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 F 249d 6392 10310 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 F 249d 6392 10310 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 F 6392 10310 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 F 6392 10310 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 F T6392C G10310A Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 F T6392C G10310A Released 30 Sep 2012
16 F A249d T6392C G10310A Released 19 Feb 2014
17 F A249d T6392C G10310A Released 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup F Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.

Hg IDOriginPublicationHg BLD16 Hg BLD17 Hg YFullMissing VariantsAdditional Variants

Sources & Resources

Related Sources


Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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