Ads and affiliate links like this help support the Q-M242 project's efforts to test indigenous peoples. Please read the affiliateship and business disclaimers for details. You may also donate directly here.



Age: 19,316.5 ± 2,545.1; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: West Asia
Mutations: A11812G A14233G (C16296T)
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: T
Descendant branch(s): T2a T2b T2c T2d T2e T2f T2g T2h T2i T2j T2k T2l T2m T2n


Haplogroup T2 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 16,800 and 21,900 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: T2
Age: 18,100 ± 6,400 Years Ago
Origin: West Asia
Blurb: Like the one before, this point in your maternal ancestors' journey began in West Asia. The woman who had the genetic markers for this point was born about 21,000 years ago at the end of the Paleolithic. From West Asia, her descendants spread across Anatolia and into much of Europe.

Today, this line is present most often in Iraq, where it is around 21 percent of maternal lineages. It is 16 percent of the population in Croatia and about 11 percent of the population in Greece. It is around 15 percent of the population in Belgium, around 13 percent of the population in Denmark, and around 11 percent of the population in Switzerland. It is between 9 and 10 percent of maternal lineages in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Wales, and Tunisia.

Interest Point: Russian Emperor Nicholas II and the notorious American outlaw Jesse James both belonged to this line.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup T2 Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01T211812 14233 16296Released 27 Aug 2008
02T211812 14233 16296Released 14 Oct 2008
03T211812 14233 (16296)Released 1 Mar 2009
05T211812 14233 (16296)Released 8 Jul 2009
06T211812 14233 (16296)Released 28 Sep 2009
07T211812 14233 (16296)Released 10 Nov 2009
08T211812 14233 (16296)Released 21 Mar 2010
09T211812 14233 (16296)Released 20 Jun 2010
10T211812 14233 (16296)Released 10 Aug 2010
11T211812 14233 (16296)Released 7 Feb 2011
12T211812 14233 (16296)Released 20 Jul 2011
13T211812 14233 (16296)Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14T2A11812G A14233G C16296TReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15T2A11812G A14233G (C16296T)Released 30 Sep 2012
16T2A11812G A14233G (C16296T)Released 19 Feb 2014
17T2A11812G A14233G (C16296T)Released 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup T2 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5002062Behar et al., 2012bT2:16296T2:315.1C, 13866, 14668, 16239
Hap5004120Behar et al., 2012bT2:16296T2:309.1C, 315.1C
Hap5004658Behar et al., 2012bnoneT2:309.1C, 315.1C, 1673, 16298, 16365
Hap5005448Bertolin et al., 2011T2:16311T2:513, 4736, 5504N, 10456N, 12477, 12738, 16292
Hap5008058Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneT2:215, 315.1C, 2523, 9380, 9438, 16301
Hap5008124Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016T2:16296T2:214R, 309.1C, 315.1C, 16287
Hap5008531Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneT2:295A, 309.1C, 315.1C, 4655, 15812, 16287
Hap5009110Gasparre et al., 2007T2:16296T2:210, 309.1C, 315.1C
Hap5009165Ghelli et al., 2009T2:152, 16296T2:309.1C, 315.1C, 549, 5438, 7471d, 10750
Hap5009656Herrnstadt et al., 2002T2:146, 152, 195, 247, 16126, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16223, 16230, 16278, 16294, 16296, 16311T2:1-576d, 3918, 9944, 12762, 16024-16569d
Hap5009902Herrnstadt et al., 2002T2:146, 152, 195, 247, 16126, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16223, 16230, 16278, 16294, 16296, 16311T2:1-576d, 1719, 5999, 9709, 16024-16569d
Hap5012643Raule et al., 2014T2:152, 16296T2:309.1CCC, 310G, 3338, 10750, 11944
Hap5012730Raule et al., 2014T2:195, 16296T2:200, 242, 315.1C
Hap5013495Raule et al., 2014T2:16296T2:309.1C, 315.1C
Hap5013907Schönberg et al., 2011T2:16189T2:310d, 523-524d, 4774N, 7244, 12236, 13500, 14047N
Hap5019208Pala et al., 2012T2:195T2:315.1C, 1719, 3106N, 4225, 13980, 16275, 16325
Hap5019209Pala et al., 2012T2:16296T2:315.1C, 1719, 6575, 7598, 10031, 13942, 15470
Hap5019210Pala et al., 2012T2:16296T2:309.1C, 315.1C, 3705, 8863, 9824, 12618, 16207
Hap5019211Pala et al., 2012T2:195, 16189, 16296T2:315.1C, 6662, 12528, 13135
Hap5019212Pala et al., 2012T2:16296T2:309.1C, 315.1C, 4017A, 16181
Hap5019214Pala et al., 2012noneT2:315.1C, 13675, 13710, 16078, 16292
Hap5020966Derenko et al., 2013T2:152, 16296T2:309.1C, 315.1C, 4562, 5824, 10750, 15973
Hap5021152Derenko et al., 2013T2:16296T2:309.1C, 315.1C, 4940A, 6318
Hap5021177Derenko et al., 2013T2:152, 16296T2:309.1C, 315.1C, 10750
Hap5023510Howell et al., 2003noneT2:7543, 9438, 11778, 14148

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10075064United StatesUnited StatesAustriaAustria
Hap10075069United StatesUnited StatesCanadaCanada
Hap10075071United KingdomCyprusCyprusCyprus
Hap10075073United StatesUnited StatesDenmarkDenmark
Hap10075077United StatesGermanyGermanyGermany
Hap10075079United StatesUnited StatesHungaryHungary
Hap10075081United StatesUnited StatesIrelandIreland
Hap10075082United StatesBritish TerritoriesItalyItaly
Hap10075085United StatesItalyItalyItaly
Hap10075086United StatesItalyItalyItaly
Hap10075087United StatesUnited StatesItalyItaly

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


Peoples: | Places:

Last Updated: Last updated: August 26, 2018 at 8:14 am

2018-08-26T08:14:13+00:00June 6th, 2016|

Leave A Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.