Haplogroup R1a1a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 1,700 and 6,200 years (Behar et al., 2012b).
Published literature only has a handful of people who belong to this line but not one of its daughter lines. The two citizen science donated samples do not have demographic information (Behar et al., 2012b). Two samples come from Fedorova et al., 2013. One is Italian and the other Assyrian. There is a member of this lineage in a study of the maternal origins of India (Palanichamy et al., 2004).
Geno 2 data includes people from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. There are also many participants from the United States with European maternal origins.
Like its parent, this line was likely born in the Caucasus region. From there, its spread has been mostly north and west into Europe. Although it has been suggested that the Indian sample in Palanichamy et al., 2004 marks the spread of R1a lineages to India. Because this line is found in the Netherlands and perhaps further west, it is possible that the line was cared to India during the recent colonial period.
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|11||R1a1||5378||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||R1a1||5378||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||R1a1||5378||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||R1a1||A5378G||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||R1a1||A5378G||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||R1a1a||A5378G||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||R1a1a||A5378G||Released 18 Feb 2016|
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5004653||Behar et al., 2012b||R1a1a:16189||R1a1a:204, 207, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 12900, 16183C|
|Hap5004919||Behar et al., 2012b||none||R1a1a:309.1C, 315.1C, 15326|
|Hap5008667||Fedorova et al., 2013||none||R1a1a:309.1C, 315.1C, 14927T|
|Hap5008674||Fedorova et al., 2013||none||R1a1a:309.1C, 315.1C, 524.1AC, 3204|
|Hap5012104||Palanichamy et al., 2004||none||R1a1a:315.1C, 3337, 12064, 14323, 16176|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hap10072672||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Hap10072674||United States||United States||Poland||Poland|
|Hap10072675||United States||United States||Poland||Poland|
|Hap10072677||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10072678||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10072679||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10072680||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10072681||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10072682||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10072683||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10072684||Unspecified||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10072685||United States||United States||Unspecified||United States|
|Hap10072686||United States||United States||Unspecified||United States|
|Hap10072687||United States||Unspecified||Unspecified||United States|
|Hap10072688||United States||Unspecified||Unspecified||United States|
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Fedorova, S.A., Reidla, M., Metspalu, E., Metspalu, M., Rootsi, S., Tambets, K., Trofimova, N., Zhadanov, S.I., Kashani, B.H., Olivieri, A. and Voevoda, M.I. (2013). Autosomal and uniparental portraits of the native populations of Sakha (Yakutia): implications for the peopling of Northeast Eurasia. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 13(1), 1.
- Palanichamy, M.G., Sun, C., Agrawal, S., Bandelt, H.J., Kong, Q.P., Khan, F., Wang, C.Y., Chaudhuri, T.K., Palla, V. and Zhang, Y.P. (2004). Phylogeny of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N in India, Based on Complete Sequencing: Implications for the Peopling of South Asia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 75(6), 966-978.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan's mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan's Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick's mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup R
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup R
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Last Updated: Last updated: August 1, 2016 at 14:59 pm
Peoples: | Places: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Spain