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Age: 8,293.9 ± 2,605.9; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: The Caucasus
Mutations: A4026G A7424G
Parent Branch: R1a
Descendant branch(s): R1a1a R1a1b R1a1c


Haplogroup R1a1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 4,700 and 9,400 years (Behar et al., 2012b). Like its parent, R1a, the lineage originated in the Caucasus region.

Published sequences include one from Russia (Fedorova et al., 2013) and another from the Azeri people (Schönberg et al., 2011). Two studies are medical and do not have demographic information (Pereira et al., ‎2007 and Soini et al., 2012). The second study was done in Finland, but it is unclear if the R1a1 person's maternal origin was in Finland. A citizen science donated sample comes from Armenian (Greenspan et al., 2006 – 2016).

Geno 2 data has one person each from Greece and Turkey.

From the Caucasus, this line seems to have spread both north to European Russia and southwest through Turkey and into Greece. It is unclear if this happened during the Bronze age in more recent historic times.

mtDNA Haplogroup R1a1 Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01R1a4026 5378 7424Released 27 Aug 2008
02R1a4026 5378 7424Released 14 Oct 2008
03R1a4026 5378 7424Released 1 Mar 2009
04R1a4026 5378 7424Released 10 May 2009
05R1a4026 5378 7424Released 8 Jul 2009
06R1a4026 5378 7424Released 28 Sep 2009
07R1a4026 5378 7424Released 10 Nov 2009
08R1a4026 5378 7424Released 21 Mar 2010
09R1a4026 5378 7424Released 20 Jun 2010
10R1a4026 5378 7424Released 10 Aug 2010
11R1a4026 7424Released 7 Feb 2011
12R1a4026 7424Released 20 Jul 2011
13R1a4026 7424Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14R1aA4026G A7424GReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15R1aA4026G A7424GReleased 30 Sep 2012
16R1a1A4026G A7424GReleased 19 Feb 2014
17R1a1A4026G A7424GReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup R1a1 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5007891Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneR1a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 11176
Hap5008676Fedorova et al., 2013noneR1a1:309.1C, 315.1C
Hap5013927Schönberg et al., 2011R1a1:152R1a1:309N, 310, 3008N, 8601N, 14047N, 15766N
Hap5014363Soini et al., 2012R1a1:6671, 8887R1a1:309.1CC, 315.1C, 4216, 9425
Hap5015838Pereira et al., ‎2007R1a1:195R1a1:150, 189, 309.1C, 315.1C, 8288, 10907, 16288

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10072668United StatesUnited StatesGreeceGreece
Hap10072669United StatesTurkeyTurkeyTurkey

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


Peoples: Azeri | Places: Armenia, Greece, Russia, and Turkey

Last Updated: Last updated: August 1, 2016 at 14:53 pm

2016-08-01T14:53:52+00:00 June 6th, 2016|