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Age: 10,617.3 ± 1,471.3; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Central Asia
Mutations: C3992T T5004C G9123A
Parent Branch: H
Descendant branch(s): H4a H4b H4c H4d


Haplogroup H4 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 9,100 and 12,100 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: H4
Age: 12,500 ± 5,300 Years Ago
Origin: Central Asia
Blurb: This step in your ancestors' travels began in the Caucasus region at the beginning of the Holocene epoch. Groups containing women with this lineage have spread both to Europe and to West Asia. From West Asia, they have moved on to the Arabian Peninsula.

Today, this line and its subtypes are most common in Turkey, Sweden, and Northern Ireland, where they account for about 3 percent of maternal lineages. This lineage is around 2 percent of the population in Norway, Portugal, France, Denmark, and England. Geneticists have found this lineage at trace frequencies of up to 1 percent across Europe and West Asia. It is also part of some Jewish Diaspora groups.


Interest Point: American billionaire Warren Buffett belongs to this line.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup H4 Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01H43992 5004 9123Released 27 Aug 2008
02H43992 5004 9123Released 14 Oct 2008
03H43992 5004 9123Released 1 Mar 2009
04H43992 5004 9123Released 10 May 2009
05H43992 5004 9123Released 8 Jul 2009
06H43992 5004 9123Released 28 Sep 2009
07H43992 5004 9123Released 10 Nov 2009
08H43992 5004 9123Released 21 Mar 2010
09H43992 5004 9123Released 20 Jun 2010
10H43992 5004 9123Released 10 Aug 2010
11H43992 5004 9123Released 7 Feb 2011
12H43992 5004 9123Released 20 Jul 2011
13H43992 5004 9123Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14H4C3992T T5004C G9123AReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15H4C3992T T5004C G9123AReleased 30 Sep 2012
16H4C3992T T5004C G9123AReleased 19 Feb 2014
17H4C3992T T5004C G9123AReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup H4 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5001201Behar et al., 2012bH4:152H4:234R, 309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 5051T, 16093, 16145, 16519
Hap5008265Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneH4:93, 315.1C, 523-524d, 1719R, 4733, 13350, 16519
Hap5012813Raule et al., 2014H4:9540H4:239, 315.1C, 482, 523-525d, 3027
Hap5016155Kujanová et al., 2009noneH4:315.1C, 482, 523-524d, 4248, 7562
Hap5016161Kujanová et al., 2009noneH4:315.1C, 482, 523-524d, 4248, 7562

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10010241United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10016407United StatesUnited StatesItalyItaly
Hap10017638United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10019303United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10023254United StatesUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10025601United KingdomUnited KingdomUnited KingdomUnited Kingdom
Hap10026465Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina
Hap10027737United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10034500United StatesUnited StatesPolandPoland
Hap10036642United StatesSerbiaSerbiaSerbia

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: August 5, 2018 at 19:24 pm

2018-08-05T19:24:06+00:00June 6th, 2016|