Age: 7,713.4 ± 1,754.3; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: G951A C16354T
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: H2a
Descendant branch(s): H2a1a H2a1b H2a1c H2a1d H2a1e H2a1f H2a1g H2a1i H2a1j H2a1k H2a1m H2a1n


Haplogroup H2a1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 6,000 and 9,500 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

mtDNA Haplogroup H2a1 Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01H2a1951 16354Released 27 Aug 2008
02H2a1951 16354Released 14 Oct 2008
04H2a1951 16354Released 10 May 2009
05H2a1951 16354Released 8 Jul 2009
06H2a1951 16354Released 28 Sep 2009
07H2a1951 16354Released 10 Nov 2009
08H2a1951 16354Released 21 Mar 2010
09H2a1951 16354Released 20 Jun 2010
10H2a1951 16354Released 10 Aug 2010
11H2a1951 16354Released 7 Feb 2011
12H2a1951 16354Released 20 Jul 2011
13H2a1951 16354Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14H2a1G951A C16354TReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15H2a1G951A C16354TReleased 30 Sep 2012
16H2a1G951A C16354TReleased 19 Feb 2014
17H2a1G951A C16354TReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup H2a1 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5000910Behar et al., 2012anoneH2a1:309.1CC, 315.1C, 5297A, 5420, 9438, 16519
Hap5000958Behar et al., 2012anoneH2a1:309.1CC, 315.1C, 5297A, 5420, 9438, 16519
Hap5000963Behar et al., 2012anoneH2a1:309.1CC, 315.1C, 5297A, 5420, 9438, 16519
Hap5001154Behar et al., 2012anoneH2a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 3930, 4074, 16519
Hap5001177Behar et al., 2012bnoneH2a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 444, 14189, 16170, 16519
Hap5001784Behar et al., 2012bnoneH2a1:315.1C, 5297A, 6890, 9438, 16519
Hap5001831Behar et al., 2012bnoneH2a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 4048, 16519
Hap5002702Behar et al., 2012bH2a1:11914H2a1:315.1C, 9145, 11719R, 16519
Hap5003118Behar et al., 2012bH2a1:11719H2a1:113, 309.1C, 315.1C, 10389, 16145
Hap5003212Behar et al., 2012bH2a1:152H2a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 709, 16519
Hap5003383Behar et al., 2012bnoneH2a1:41, 309.1C, 315.1C, 3396, 3951, 8251, 16519
Hap5003416Behar et al., 2012bnoneH2a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 8406, 16519
Hap5003481Behar et al., 2012bnoneH2a1:315.1C, 4012, 16248, 16519
Hap5003783Behar et al., 2012bnoneH2a1:315.1C, 10352, 16519
Hap5003792Behar et al., 2012bH2a1:146H2a1:315.1C, 16519
Hap5003846Behar et al., 2012bH2a1:146H2a1:309.1C, 15884, 16519
Hap5004728Behar et al., 2012bnoneH2a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 573.1XC, 3396, 16173, 16519
Hap5004743Behar et al., 2012bnoneH2a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 10310, 13993, 16519
Hap5007371Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016H2a1:146H2a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 4659, 8084, 16519
Hap5007413Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneH2a1:315.1C, 16519
Hap5007437Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016H2a1:11914H2a1:315.1C, 9145, 16519
Hap5008795Finnilä et al., 2001noneH2a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 10172, 10310, 16291, 16519
Hap5009159Gasparre et al., 2007H2a1:16129H2a1:1-36d, 310, 10235, 14266, 16519
Hap5012551Raule et al., 2014H2a1:16187, 16311H2a1:315.1C, 16187d, 16519
Hap5012606Raule et al., 2014noneH2a1:182, 315.1C, 6071, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10000061United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10000171United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10000421United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10000769United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10000887United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10001088United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10002212United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10002858United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10002914United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10003437United StatesUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnited States

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am

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