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Age: 10,531.8 ± 1,628.5; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Central Asia or Eastern Europe
Mutations: G4769A
Parent Branch: H2
Descendant branch(s): H2a1 H2a2 H2a3 H2a4 H2a5


Haplogroup H2a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 8,900 and 12,200 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: H2a
Age: 19,300 ± 2,000 Years Ago
Origin: Central Asia or Eastern Europe
Blurb: This lineage was born around 19,300 years ago in either Central Asia or Eastern Europe. Women from this group traveled alongside their more distant cousins and are thus now present in many of the same places.

Today, this lineage is about 5 percent of maternal lineages in Slovakia, Saudi Arabia, Poland, and Croatia. It is around 4 percent of the population of Finland, Denmark, and Belgium. It is between 4 and 5 percent of maternal lineages in Northern Ireland.


Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup H2a Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01H2a4769Released 27 Aug 2008
02H2a4769Released 14 Oct 2008
04H2a4769Released 10 May 2009
05H2a4769Released 8 Jul 2009
06H2a4769Released 28 Sep 2009
07H2a4769Released 10 Nov 2009
08H2a4769Released 21 Mar 2010
09H2a4769Released 20 Jun 2010
10H2a4769Released 10 Aug 2010
11H2a4769Released 7 Feb 2011
12H2a4769Released 20 Jul 2011
13H2a4769Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14H2aG4769AReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15H2aG4769AReleased 30 Sep 2012
16H2aG4769AReleased 19 Feb 2014
17H2aG4769AReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup H2a Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5009306Hartmann et al., 2008H2a:16189H2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 16266
Hap5014326Soini et al., 2012noneH2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 10172, 10310, 16291, 16519
Hap5017063Fendt et al., 2010H2a:73H2a:315.1C, 4350, 5460, 8709, 8856, 16519
Hap5017078Fendt et al., 2010H2a:73H2a:315.1C, 4350, 5460, 8709, 8856, 12131, 16519
Hap5017197Sukernik et al., 2010H2a:73H2a:4350, 5460, 8709, 16519
Hap5018088Wang HW et al., 2012noneH2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 13968, 15787, 16271

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10007534United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10011079United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10015905United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10018036United StatesUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10018229United StatesUnited StatesFranceFrance
Hap10023119Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina
Hap10030378United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: August 5, 2018 at 18:44 pm

2018-08-05T18:44:20+00:00June 6th, 2016|