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Age: 11,905.3 ± 1,364.4; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Central Asia or Eastern Europe
Mutations: G1438A
Parent Branch: H
Descendant branch(s): H2a H2b H2c


Haplogroup H2 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 10,500 and 13,300 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: H2
Age: To Be Determined
Origin: Central Asia or Eastern Europe
Blurb: This lineage was born during the Mesolithic period. Its distribution from Central Asia into Europe suggests an origin in Central Asia. Its presence on the Arabian Peninsula may be due to recent back migrations.

Today, this line and its subtypes are 6 percent of the population of Denmark and 8 percent of the population of Norway. It is about 5 percent of maternal lineages in Slovakia. It is a striking 13 percent of maternal lineages in the United Arab Emirates.

Interest Points: The first mtDNA to be fully sequenced, the historic Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), belonged to a subtype of this line.
DNA from the reputed remains of Luke the Evangelist indicates that he belonged to this lineage.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic


mtDNA Haplogroup H2 Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01H21438Released 27 Aug 2008
02H21438Released 14 Oct 2008
03H21438Released 1 Mar 2009
04H21438Released 10 May 2009
05H21438Released 8 Jul 2009
06H21438Released 28 Sep 2009
07H21438Released 10 Nov 2009
08H21438Released 21 Mar 2010
09H21438Released 20 Jun 2010
10H21438Released 10 Aug 2010
11H21438Released 7 Feb 2011
12H21438Released 20 Jul 2011
13H21438Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14H2G1438AReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15H2G1438AReleased 30 Sep 2012
16H2G1438AReleased 19 Feb 2014
17H2G1438AReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup H2 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5003632Behar et al., 2012bH2:16189H2:309.1CC, 315.1C, 2772, 8129

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10000873United StatesUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10007991AustraliaAustraliaUnited KingdomUnited Kingdom
Hap10010875United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10018597United StatesUnited StatesIrelandIreland
Hap10019732United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10020508United StatesUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10024985United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10025658United KingdomUnited KingdomUnited KingdomUnited Kingdom
Hap10030393United StatesUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10030570United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10037301United StatesUnited StatesItalyItaly
Hap10037661United StatesUnited StatesBritish Dependent TerritoriesBritish Dependent Territories

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: September 25, 2018 at 10:15 am

2018-09-25T10:15:45+00:00June 6th, 2016|
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