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Haplogroup H is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup HV. It was likely born in the West Asia around 13,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)


Most researchers consider the birthplace of H to have been born in West Asia.


Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the H lineage between 12,100 and 13,600 years ago. This means the line was born in the Mesolithic. People were making highly refined stone tools.

Ancient DNA

Coming Soon


This timeline is an overview of the H branch’s history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the H lineage. (View in new tab.)

Modern Populations

Despite its relative youth, haplogroup H is widely distributed. It is the dominant haplogroup across Europe. It is also found across West Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia. In places, it reaches as far east as East Asia. It sweeps across the Middle East. It is present in North Africa. There, it reaches high frequencies in some isolated populations.

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: H
Age: 28,000 ± 890 Years Ago
Origin: West Asia
Blurb: This step in your maternal ancestors’ travels took place around 28,000 years ago in West Asia. Before the weather in the Northern Hemisphere became inhospitable, groups containing this lineage expanded into Central Asia, Europe, and East Africa.
However, the last glacial maximum forced early Europeans into refugia and drastically reducing population sizes and genetic diversity.As the last glacial maximum ended and the ice sheets began their retreat, those who had been living in the refugia recolonized Europe. Yours was by far the most frequent maternal lineage carried by these expanding groups. Later migrations, such as those during the Neolithic Revolution and those triggered by the Bronze Age, brought additional groups containing different subtypes of this line to Europe.
Today, this lineage makes up 40 to 60 percent of the gene pool in most European populations. The highest percentage of this line in Europe is in Ireland, where it makes up 61 percent of the population.Elsewhere in Europe and West Asia, other isolated subtypes also expanded at the end of the last glacial maximum. This branch is 25 percent of the population in Turkey, 20 percent of the population in the Caucasus Mountains, 15 percent of the population in Central Asia, and 20 percent of Southwest Asian lineages.Interest Points: French Queen Marie Antoinette and Renaissance astronomer Nicholas Copernicus were members of this line.

mtDNA Haplogroup H Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
01 H 2706 7028 Released 27 Aug 2008
02 H 2706 7028 Released 14 Oct 2008
03 H 2706 7028 Released 1 Mar 2009
04 H 2706 7028 Released 10 May 2009
05 H 2706 7028 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 H 2706 7028 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 H 2706 7028 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 H 2706 7028 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 H 2706 7028 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 H 2706 7028 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 H 2706 7028 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 H 2706 7028 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 H 2706 7028 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 H G2706A T7028C Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 H G2706A T7028C Released 30 Sep 2012
16 H G2706A T7028C Released 19 Feb 2014
17 H G2706A T7028C Released 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup H Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5000060 Achilli et al., 2004 none H:72, 183, 309.1C, 315.1C, 1598, 16066, 16239
Hap5000061 Achilli et al., 2004 none H:309.1C, 315.1C, 3460, 3786, 11536
Hap5000062 Achilli et al., 2004 none H:309.1C, 315.1C, 16362
Hap5000795 Behar et al., 2012a none H:315.1C, 5794, 8485, 8723
Hap5000847 Behar et al., 2012a none H:309.1C, 315.1C, 13191
Hap5000896 Behar et al., 2012a none H:93, 151, 315.1C, 1578R
Hap5001251 Behar et al., 2012b none H:200, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 9699, 15805
Hap5001317 Behar et al., 2012b H:146 H:152Y, 315.1C, 6410, 9284, 9328, 16124, 16245
Hap5001335 Behar et al., 2012b none H:315.1C, 3826, 14605R
Hap5001425 Behar et al., 2012b H:73 H:207, 309.1C, 315.1C, 16192, 16519
Hap5001871 Behar et al., 2012b none H:309.1C, 315.1C, 8877, 13431, 16519
Hap5001897 Behar et al., 2012b none H:315.1C, 16274
Hap5001920 Behar et al., 2012b H:73 H:315.1C, 14968
Hap5002040 Behar et al., 2012b none H:315.1C, 8772, 9110, 16261
Hap5002255 Behar et al., 2012b none H:93, 151, 315.1C, 5277, 9593
Hap5002642 Behar et al., 2012b none H:151, 309.1C, 315.1C, 7109A, 13819
Hap5002699 Behar et al., 2012b none H:309.1C, 315.1C, 980, 3290, 11665, 13651, 16354
Hap5002878 Behar et al., 2012b H:13105 H:309.1CC, 315.1C
Hap5002904 Behar et al., 2012b none H:315.1C, 523-524d, 14851, 16319
Hap5003215 Behar et al., 2012b H:146 H:315.1C, 524.1AC, 10237, 10598, 12134A, 16184
Hap5003446 Behar et al., 2012b none H:309.1C, 315.1C, 16093
Hap5003633 Behar et al., 2012b H:10398 H:131, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 524.1AC, 6752C, 9103, 11563G, 14218
Hap5003779 Behar et al., 2012b none H:315.1C, 5483, 10550
Hap5003932 Behar et al., 2012b none H:315.1C, 3172, 9074, 13759
Hap5004024 Behar et al., 2012b H:73, 16278 H:315.1C, 13581Y

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10000053United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10000112United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10000126UnspecifiedUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10000214United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10000242United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10000267United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10000284United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10000401United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10000410United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10000450United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10000502United StatesItalyItalyItaly

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: October 8, 2018 at 15:09 pm

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