Haplogroup B2a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 9,000 and 15,300 years ago (Behar et al 2012b).
National Geographic 2.0 Information
This information comes from the 2012 update of the National Geographic Genographic Project website.
mtDNA Haplogroup B2a Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|01||B2a||16111 16483||Released 27 Aug 2008|
|02||B2a||16111 16483||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|05||B2a||16111 16483||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||B2a||16111 16483||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||B2a||16111 16483||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||B2a||16111 16483||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||B2a||16111 16483||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||B2a||16111 16483||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||B2a||16111 16483||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||B2a||16111 16483||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||B2a||16111 16483||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||B2a||C16111T G16483A||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||B2a||C16111T G16483A||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||B2a||C16111T G16483A||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||B2a||C16111T G16483A||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup B2a Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5020766||Achilli et al., 2013||none||B2a:309.1CC, 315.1C, 8843, 12810, 16182C, 16183C, 16399|
|Hap5020767||Achilli et al., 2013||B2a:146||B2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 16183C|
|Hap5022306||Zheng et al., 2012||none||B2a:315.1C, 9804, 16182C, 16183C, 16224, 16512|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hap10043323||United States||United States||Mexico||Mexico|
|Hap10043324||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10043325||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10043326||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10043327||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10043328||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10043329||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10043330||United States||United States||Unspecified||United States|
|Hap10043331||United States||Unspecified||Unspecified||United States|
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
Sources & Resources
- Achilli, A., Perego, U.A., Lancioni, H., Olivieri, A., Gandini, F., Kashani, B.H., Battaglia, V., Grugni, V., Angerhofer, N., Rogers, M.P. and Herrera, R.J. (2013). Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(35), 14308-14313.
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Zheng, H. X., Yan, S., Qin, Z. D., & Jin, L. (2012). MtDNA analysis of global populations support that major population expansions began before Neolithic Time. Nature Scientific Reports, 2, -.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup B
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup B
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
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Last Updated: Last updated: September 29, 2018 at 11:38 am