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Age: 49,544.7 ± 6,619.4; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Asia
Mutations: 8281-8289d
Parent Branch: R
Descendant branch(s): B4 B5


Haplogroup B4'5 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 42,900 and 56,200 years ago (Behar et al., 2012b).

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: B4'5
Age: About 51,000 Years Ago
Origin: Asia
Blurb: This branch was born in the deserts and plains between the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal in Central Asia. Some members of this line migrated into East Asia. There it became a founding lineage.

Around 17,000 years ago, a population explosion in East Asia triggered expansion into new lands. From northeastern Asia, groups that included this lineage traveled south along the Pacific coast of Asia, and this lineage is now part of populations from Vietnam to Japan.


During the last glacial maximum, about 15,000 years ago, a corridor opened between Siberia and North America. Some members of this line subtype moved across into the Americas. This branch was one of only five founding lineages, and today is part of the populations throughout native groups of North and South America.

Today, this lineage is around 3 percent of Siberians and around 17 percent of people of all Chinese people. European colonization and loss of native lands to urbanization has diminished its presence in the indigenous populations of the Americas. However, it remains significant in remaining populations.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup B4'5 Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01B8281-8289dReleased 27 Aug 2008
02B8281-8289dReleased 14 Oct 2008
03B8281-8289dReleased 1 Mar 2009
04B8281-8289dReleased 10 May 2009
06B4'58281-8289dReleased 28 Sep 2009
07B4'58281-8289dReleased 10 Nov 2009
08B4'58281-8289dReleased 21 Mar 2010
09B4'58281-8289dReleased 20 Jun 2010
10B4'58281-8289dReleased 10 Aug 2010
11B4'58281-8289dReleased 7 Feb 2011
12B4'58281-8289dReleased 20 Jul 2011
13B4'58281-8289dReleased 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14B4'58281-8289dReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15B4'58281-8289dReleased 30 Sep 2012
16B8281-8289dReleased 19 Feb 2014
17B4'58281-8289dReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup B4'5 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: August 4, 2018 at 19:29 pm

2018-08-04T19:29:52+00:00June 6th, 2016|