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Age: 56,523.5 ± 2,081.2; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: West Asia
Mutations: T12705C T16223C
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: N
Descendant branch(s): B4'5 P R0 R1 R12'21 R14 R2'JT R22 R23 R24 R30 R31 R32 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 U


Haplogroup R is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup N. It was likely born in the West Asia around 57,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)


Most researchers consider the birthplace of R to have been born in West Asia.


Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the R lineage between 54,400 and 58,600 years ago. This means the line was born in the Upper Paleolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.

Ancient DNA

Coming Soon


This timeline is an overview of the R branch's history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the R lineage. (View in new tab.)

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: R
Age: 64,200 Years Ago
Origin: Asia
Blurb: This point in your ancestors journey began soon after humans moved out-of-Africa. Her descendants undertook many of the same migrations as others from her maternal lineage.After several thousand years in West Asia, population groups containing this lineage moved into surrounding areas. They traveled on to Central Asia. Some moved south, migrating back into North Africa. Others went west across Anatolia. Some of these went north across the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia and south Russia.Interest Point: Descendants of this line dominate the European maternal landscape, making up 75 to 95 percent of the lineages there.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup R Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01R12705 16223Released 27 Aug 2008
02R12705 16223Released 14 Oct 2008
03R12705 16223Released 1 Mar 2009
04R12705 16223Released 10 May 2009
05R12705 16223Released 8 Jul 2009
06R12705 16223Released 28 Sep 2009
07R12705 16223Released 10 Nov 2009
08R12705 16223Released 21 Mar 2010
09R12705 16223Released 20 Jun 2010
10R12705 16223Released 10 Aug 2010
11R12705 16223Released 7 Feb 2011
12R12705 16223Released 20 Jul 2011
13R12705 16223Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14RT12705C T16223CReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15RT12705C T16223CReleased 30 Sep 2012
16RT12705C T16223CReleased 19 Feb 2014
17RT12705C T16223CReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup R Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5006965Delfin et al., 2014R:146, 10398, 16129R:146N, 309d, 315.1C, 316N, 322N, 480N, 499N, 523-524d, 3492N, 3571N, 3970N, 6392N, 9554N, 10310N, 10398N, 10609N, 13759N, 15301N, 16129N, 16217N, 16362N
Hap5011299Ko et al., 2014R:10398R:6863, 8400, 14410, 14883, 15381, 16150, 16217, 16240, 16261, 16519
Hap5012344Pradutkanchana et al., 2011R:16129R:182, 315.1C, 338, 6962, 7202, 9063, 9350, 9449, 10454, 12285, 13326, 13830, 14470, 15258, 16093, 16172
Hap5014017Schönberg et al., 2011R:146, 152, 16129R:60d, 81, 150, 283, 302d, 310d, 451d, 593d, 3006N, 3008N, 3160d, 4928N, 5201N, 5348N, 5894d, 6371N, 7028N, 8320N, 10099N, 11719N, 11976N, 12654, 14305, 16071, 16355, 16357, 16519
Hap5014018Schönberg et al., 2011R:152R:60d, 150, 302d, 310d, 451d, 593d, 3006, 3008, 3014T, 3017G, 3019T, 3021N, 3160d, 4216N, 5894d, 10956N, 11251N, 11467N, 11719N, 12236N, 12654N, 13708N, 14047N, 14305N, 14766N, 15106N, 16071N, 16229, 16234
Hap5023488Young et al., 2006R:10398R:249d, 263, 315.1C, 523-524d, 1555, 12882, 14178, 14668, 14693, 14766, 16304G

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


Peoples: | Places: Eurasia and Levantine

Last Updated: Last updated: October 8, 2018 at 16:28 pm

2018-10-08T16:28:37+00:00June 6th, 2016|

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