Haplogroup R is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup N. It was likely born in the West Asia around 57,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)
Most researchers consider the birthplace of R to have been born in West Asia.
Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the R lineage between 54,400 and 58,600 years ago. This means the line was born in the Upper Paleolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.
This timeline is an overview of the R branch’s history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the R lineage. (View in new tab.)
National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text
mtDNA Haplogroup R Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|01||R||12705 16223||Released 27 Aug 2008|
|02||R||12705 16223||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|03||R||12705 16223||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||R||12705 16223||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||R||12705 16223||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||R||12705 16223||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||R||12705 16223||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||R||12705 16223||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||R||12705 16223||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||R||12705 16223||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||R||12705 16223||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||R||12705 16223||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||R||12705 16223||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||R||T12705C T16223C||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||R||T12705C T16223C||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||R||T12705C T16223C||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||R||T12705C T16223C||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup R Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5006965||Delfin et al., 2014||R:146, 10398, 16129||R:146N, 309d, 315.1C, 316N, 322N, 480N, 499N, 523-524d, 3492N, 3571N, 3970N, 6392N, 9554N, 10310N, 10398N, 10609N, 13759N, 15301N, 16129N, 16217N, 16362N|
|Hap5011299||Ko et al., 2014||R:10398||R:6863, 8400, 14410, 14883, 15381, 16150, 16217, 16240, 16261, 16519|
|Hap5012344||Pradutkanchana et al., 2011||R:16129||R:182, 315.1C, 338, 6962, 7202, 9063, 9350, 9449, 10454, 12285, 13326, 13830, 14470, 15258, 16093, 16172|
|Hap5014017||Schönberg et al., 2011||R:146, 152, 16129||R:60d, 81, 150, 283, 302d, 310d, 451d, 593d, 3006N, 3008N, 3160d, 4928N, 5201N, 5348N, 5894d, 6371N, 7028N, 8320N, 10099N, 11719N, 11976N, 12654, 14305, 16071, 16355, 16357, 16519|
|Hap5014018||Schönberg et al., 2011||R:152||R:60d, 150, 302d, 310d, 451d, 593d, 3006, 3008, 3014T, 3017G, 3019T, 3021N, 3160d, 4216N, 5894d, 10956N, 11251N, 11467N, 11719N, 12236N, 12654N, 13708N, 14047N, 14305N, 14766N, 15106N, 16071N, 16229, 16234|
|Hap5023488||Young et al., 2006||R:10398||R:249d, 263, 315.1C, 523-524d, 1555, 12882, 14178, 14668, 14693, 14766, 16304G|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Delfin, F., Ko, A.M.S., Li, M., Gunnarsdóttir, E.D., Tabbada, K.A., Salvador, J.M., Calacal, G.C., Sagum, M.S., Datar, F.A., Padilla, S.G. and De Ungria, M.C.A. (2014). Complete mtDNA genomes of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups: a melting pot of recent and ancient lineages in the Asia-Pacific region. European Journal of Human Genetics, 22(2), 228-237.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Ko, A.M.S., Chen, C.Y., Fu, Q., Delfin, F., Li, M., Chiu, H.L., Stoneking, M. and Ko, Y.C. (2014). Early Austronesians: Into and Out Of Taiwan. American journal of human genetics, 94(3), 426-436.
- - (2011). A Direct Submission to GenBank by Pradutkanchana et al., 2011. , unpublished, unpublished.
- Schonberg, Anna; Theunert, Christoph; Li, Mingkun; Stoneking, Mark & Nasidze, Ivan (2011). High-throughput sequencing of complete human mtDNA genomes from the Caucasus and West Asia: high diversity and demographic inferences. European Journal of Human Genetics, 19(9), 988-994.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Young, W.Y., Zhao, L., Qian, Y., Li, R., Chen, J., Yuan, H., Dai, P., Zhai, S., Han, D. and Guan, M.X. (2006). Variants in mitochondrial tRNAGlu, tRNAArg, and tRNAThr may influence the phenotypic manifestation of deafness-associated 12S rRNA A1555G mutation in three Han Chinese families with hearing loss. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 140(20), 2188-2197.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup R
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup R
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Peoples: | Places: Eurasia and Levantine
Last Updated: Last updated: October 8, 2018 at 16:28 pm