Haplogroup N21a is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity.
mtDNA Haplogroup N21a Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|15||N21a||C9512T G13135A C16291T||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||N21a||C9512T G13135A C16291T||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||N21a||C9512T G13135A C16291T||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup N21a Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5010371||Jinam et al., 2012||none||N21a:310, 16223|
|Hap5010373||Jinam et al., 2012||none||N21a:315.1C, 3552, 16223|
|Hap5010378||Jinam et al., 2012||none||N21a:309.1C, 315.1C, 15514, 16223|
|Hap5010380||Jinam et al., 2012||none||N21a:309.1CC, 315.1C, 16223|
|Hap5011745||Macaulay et al., 2005||none||N21a:55A, 315.1C, 3552, 16223|
|Hap5016726||Peng et al., 2010||none||N21a:309.1C, 315.1C, 6480, 8470, 11150, 14344|
|Hap5017587||Gunnarsdóttir et al., 2011b||none||N21a:291d, 309.1C, 315.1C, 573d, 11150, 16304|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Gunnarsdóttir, E.D., Nandineni, M.R., Li, M., Myles, S., Gil, D., Pakendorf, B. and Stoneking, M. (2011). Larger mitochondrial DNA than Y-chromosome differences between matrilocal and patrilocal groups from Sumatra. Nature Communications, 2, 228.
- Jinam, T.A., Hong, L.C., Phipps, M.E., Stoneking, M., Ameen, M., Edo, J., Saitou, N. and HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium. (2012). Evolutionary History of Continental Southeast Asians: “Early Train” Hypothesis Based on Genetic Analysis of Mitochondrial and Autosomal DNA Data. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 29(11), 3513-3527.
- Macaulay, V., Hill, C., Achilli, A., Rengo, C., Clarke, D., Meehan, W., Blackburn, J., Semino, O., Scozzari, R., Cruciani, F. and Taha, A. (2005). Single, Rapid Coastal Settlement of Asia Revealed by Analysis of Complete Mitochondrial Genomes. , 308(5724), 1034-1036.
- Peng, M.S., Quang, H.H., Dang, K.P., Trieu, A.V., Wang, H.W., Yao, Y.G., Kong, Q.P. and Zhang, Y.P. (2010). Tracing the Austronesian Footprint in Mainland Southeast Asia: A Perspective from Mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 27(10), 2417-2430.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan's mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan's Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick's mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup N
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup N
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
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Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am