Age: 2,986.1 ± 1,967.6; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Northwestern Europe
Mutations: A533G T3398C
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: I2a
Descendant branch(s): I2a1a


Haplogroup I2a1 is a Northwestern European branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 1,000 and 5,000 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

In GenBank, there are two samples from citizen science contributions. Both trace their origins to Ireland.

In the Geno 2.0 database, the samples with known origins come from Finland. There are also samples from Canada, Australia, and the United States that indicate women from this lineage took part in recent migrations to all three places.

mtDNA Haplogroup I2a1 Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

11I2a13398Released 7 Feb 2011
12I2a13398Released 20 Jul 2011
13I2a13398Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14I2a1T3398CReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
16I2a1A533G T3398CReleased 19 Feb 2014
17I2a1A533G T3398CReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup I2a1 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5007987Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneI2a1:315.1C
Hap5008239Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneI2a1:315.1C

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10048859United StatesUnited StatesFinlandFinland
Hap10048860United StatesUnited StatesFinlandFinland
Hap10048861United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10048862United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10048863United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10048864United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10048865United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10048867United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10048868United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10048869United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10048870United StatesUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnited States

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


Peoples: Finns and Irish | Places: Finland and Ireland

Last Updated: Last updated: December 15, 2017 at 3:59 am

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