Haplogroup A3 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 2,200 and 11,300 years ago (Behar et al 2012b).
Published research includes five Japanese samples between three studies (Mikami et al., 2013, Nohira et al., 2009, and Ueno et al., 2009).
Geno 2 includes one person from the lineage whose maternal origin traces to Taiwan.
The age of the branch and its known origins indicate that one or more women in it may have taken part in the rice farming revolution.
mtDNA Haplogroup A3 Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|01||A3||2857 8962 9711 13140 13737 15286 16519||Released 27 Aug 2008|
|02||A3||2857 8962 9711 13140 13737 15286 16519||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|03||A3||2857 8962 9711||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||A3||2857 8962 9711||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||A3||2857 8962 9711||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||A3||2857 8962 9711||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||A3||2857 8962 9711||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||A3||2857 8962 9711||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||A3||2857 8962 9711||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||A3||2857 8962 9711||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||A3||2857 8962 9711||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||A3||2857 8962 9711||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||A3||2857 8962 9711||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||A3||T2857C A8962G C9711T||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||A3||T2857C A8962G C9711T||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||A3||T2857C A8962G C9711T||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||A3||T2857C A8962G C9711T||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup A3 Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5011870||-||Mikami et al., 2013||A3||-||none||A3:150, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d|
|Hap5011959||-||Mikami et al., 2013||A3||-||none||A3:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d|
|Hap5012046||-||Nohira et al., 2009||A3||-||none||A3:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16209, 16356|
|Hap5015320||-||Ueno et al., 2009||A3||-||none||A3:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 8781, 16519|
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Mikami, E., Fuku, N., Kong, Q.P., Takahashi, H., Ohiwa, N., Murakami, H., Miyachi, M., Higuchi, M., Tanaka, M., Pitsiladis, Y.P. and Kawahara, T. (2013). Comprehensive analysis of common and rare mitochondrial DNA variants in elite Japanese athletes: a case–control study. Journal of human genetics, 58(12), 780-787.
- Nohira, C., Maruyama, S. & Minaguchi, K. (2009). Phylogenetic classification of Japanese mtDNA assisted by complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. International journal of legal medicine, 124(1), 7-12.
- Ueno, H., Nishigaki, Y., Kong, Q.P., Fuku, N., Kojima, S., Iwata, N., Ozaki, N. and Tanaka, M. (2009). Analysis of mitochondrial DNA variants in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Mitochondrion, 9(6), 385-393.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup A2
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup A
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Peoples: - | Places: Japan and Taiwan
Last Updated: [lastupdated]