Haplogroup A21 is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity with a likely origin in Tibet or the surrounding region. Its age has not been determined.
Academic information comes from three studies of peoples in or near Tibet. The first study found a member of the lineage in Chamdo, Tibet (Qin et al., 2010). Another comes from GenBank samples from an unpublished study of the Ladakh tribe (Sharma V et al., 2012). Finally, the branch was found in the Sherpa people (Kang et al., 2013).
Interestingly, the Geno 2 data set includes someone whose maternal origins are from Trinidad and Tobago. The a likely explanation is that their ancestor was one of the thousands of Indians taken into indentured service by the British. They became known as Indo-Trinidadians.
mtDNA Haplogroup A21 Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|16||A21||G14364A||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||A21||G14364A||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup A21 Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5010711||-||Kang et al., 2013||A21||-||none||A21:16092, 16519|
|Hap5010712||-||Kang et al., 2013||A21||-||none||A21:16092, 16519|
|Hap5012391||-||Qin et al. 2010||A21||-||none||A21:151, 315.1C, 632, 8506, 13020, 13145, 14962, 16519|
|Hap5017294||-||Sharma V et al., 2012||A21||-||none||A21:143, 309.1C, 315.1C, 13934, 16519|
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Kang, L., Zheng, H.X., Chen, F., Yan, S., Liu, K., Qin, Z., Liu, L., Zhao, Z., Li, L., Wang, X. and He, Y. (2013). mtDNA Lineage Expansions in Sherpa Population Suggest Adaptive Evolution in Tibetan Highlands. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30(12), 2579-2587.
- Qin, Z., Yang, Y., Kang, L., Yan, S., Cho, K., Cai, X., Lu, Y., Zheng, H., Zhu, D., Fei, D. and Li, S. (2010). A mitochondrial revelation of early human migrations to the Tibetan Plateau before and after the last glacial maximum. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 143(4), 555-569.
- - (2012). A Direct Submission to GenBank by Sharma V et al., 2012. , unpublished, unpublished.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup A2
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup A
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Peoples: Ladakh, Sherpa, and Tibetans | Places: Tibet
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