Haplogroup A2d is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 7,000 and 14,700 years ago (Behar et al 2012b).
mtDNA Haplogroup A2d Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|01||A2d||6308||Released 27 Aug 2008|
|02||A2d||6308||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|03||A2d||6308||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||A2d||6308||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||A2d||6308||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||A2d||6308||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||A2d||6308||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||A2d||6308||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||A2d||6308||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||A2d||6308||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||A2d||6308||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||A2d||6308||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||A2d||6308||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||A2d||C6308T||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||A2d||C6308T||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||A2d||C6308T||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||A2d||C6308T||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup A2d Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5010418||-||Just et al., 2008||A2d||-||A2d:16111||A2d:51, 309.1CN, 315.1C, 523-524d, 959, 16519|
|Hap5014211||-||Sequeira et al., 2015||A2d||-||none||A2d:183, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3316, 4655, 6366, 8108, 9160, 16287, 16468, 16519|
|Hap5017626||-||A2d||-||none||A2d:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 5972, 9612C, 16153, 16519|
|Hap5017666||-||A2d||-||A2d:16111||A2d:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16093, 16519|
|Hap5017693||-||A2d||-||A2d:16129||A2d:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16519|
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Just, R.S., Diegoli, T.M., Saunier, J.L., Irwin, J.A. and Parsons, T.J. (2008). Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for 265 African American and U.S. “Hispanic” individuals. Forensic Science International: Genetics, 2(3), e45-e48.
- Sequeira, A., Rollins, B., Magnan, C., van Oven, M., Baldi, P., Myers, R.M., Barchas, J.D., Schatzberg, A.F., Watson, S.J., Akil, H. and Bunney, W.E. (2015). Mitochondrial Mutations in Subjects with Psychiatric Disorders. PLoS ONE, 10(5), e0127280.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup A2
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup A
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
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