Haplogroup A2a5 is an Native Americas branch on the maternal tree of humanity. This young branch of the tree was born between 250 and 1,750 years ago to a woman who lived among the Athabaskan language speakers in what is now Canada. (Achilli et al., 2013)
Information on the lineage comes from two published studies. The first found the lineage in the Apache population of New Mexico and Arizona (Tamm et al., 2007). The second study was Achilli et al., 2013. The authors did extensive testing of maternal lineages of native peoples in North America. They found members of the lineage in the Navajo of the American Southwest and the Cree and Secwepemc (Shuswap) of Canada. All of these speak languages that belong to the Athabaskan language family. They also found members of the line in the general population in the United States states of New Mexico, Arizona, California, and Texas.
In the Geno 2 data set, members of this line have maternal origins in Canada, Mexico, and the United States.
mtDNA Haplogroup A2a5 Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|16||A2a5||T3552C T12166C A16233G A16331G C16362T!||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||A2a5||T3552C T12166C A16233G A16331G C16362T!||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup A2a5 Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5014545||-||Tamm et al., 2007||A2a5||-||none||A2a5:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16519|
|Hap5020754||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a5||-||none||A2a5:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16519|
|Hap5020755||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a5||-||none||A2a5:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16519|
|Hap5020756||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a5||-||none||A2a5:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16519|
|Hap5020757||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a5||-||none||A2a5:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16519|
|Hap5020758||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a5||-||none||A2a5:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16189Y, 16519|
|Hap5020759||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a5||-||none||A2a5:315.1C, 523-524d, 15664, 16189Y, 16519|
|Hap5020760||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a5||-||A2a5:16189||A2a5:315.1C, 523-524d, 15664, 16188.1Y, 16519|
|Hap5020761||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a5||-||A2a5:16189||A2a5:315.1C, 523-524d, 15664, 16188.1Y, 16519|
|Hap5020762||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a5||-||none||A2a5:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 7797, 15664, 16189Y, 16519|
|Hap5020763||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a5||-||A2a5:152||A2a5:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16331R|
|Hap5020764||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a5||-||none||A2a5:159, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16519|
|Hap5020765||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a5||-||none||A2a5:159, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16519|
Sources & Resources
- Achilli, A., Perego, U.A., Lancioni, H., Olivieri, A., Gandini, F., Kashani, B.H., Battaglia, V., Grugni, V., Angerhofer, N., Rogers, M.P. and Herrera, R.J. (2013). Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(35), 14308-14313.
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Tamm, E., Kivisild, T., Reidla, M., Metspalu, M., Smith, D.G., Mulligan, C.J., Bravi, C.M., Rickards, O., Martinez-Labarga, C., Khusnutdinova, E.K. and Fedorova, S.A. (2007). Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders. PLoS ONE, 2(9), e829.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup A2
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup A
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Peoples: Apache, Athabaskan, Cree, Na Dane, Navajo, and Secwepemc | Places: Canada, North America, and United States
Last Updated: [lastupdated]